Everything You Need to Know About 5G
What is 5G?
Until recently, there were four generations of mobile communications in the world . Currently, operators, with the support of equipment suppliers (vendors), are actively testing the capabilities of fifth-generation networks, whose commercial expansion is expected by 2020. To explain this is quite simple: there is the so-called ten-year rule. If you look a little into the past, you can see that each new generation of mobile communications appeared about 10 years after the previous one: the first generation appeared in the early 80s, the second in the early 90s, the third in the early 00s, the fourth in 2009 year. The conclusion suggests itself that 5G commercial networks will begin to fill the world in 2020.
The fifth generation mobile communication standard (5G) is a new stage in the development of technology, which is designed to expand the possibilities of accessing the Internet through radio access networks.
The standardization of mobile networks of 2, 3, 4 and 5 generations is carried out by a partnership project for standardization of 3rd generation systems (3rd Generation Partnership Project, 3GPP)
In 2017, 3GPP officially announced that 5G will become the official name for the next generation of mobile communications and introduced a new official logo for the communications standard.
The tasks that 5G technology is designed to solve:
- Mobile traffic growth
- Increase the number of devices connected to the network
- Reduction of delays for the implementation of new services
- Lack of frequency spectrum
5G Network Services
- Extreme Mobile Broadband (eMBB) – implementation of ultra-wideband communication with the aim of transmitting “heavy” content;
- Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) – support for the Internet of Things (ultra-narrowband)
- Ultra-Reliable Low Latency communication (URLLC) – providing a special class of services with very low latencies
It is obvious that in the future much more devices will be connected to the network, most of which will work on the principle of “always online”. At the same time, their low power consumption will be a very important parameter.
5G Network Requirements
- Network bandwidth up to 20 Gbit / s downlink (ie, to the subscriber); and up to 10 Gb / s in the opposite direction.
- Support for simultaneous connection of up to 1 million devices / km 2.
- Reducing the time delay on the radio interface to 0.5 ms (for the services of Ultra-Reliable Inter-Machine Communication URLLC) and up to 4 ms (for services of the Ultra-Wideband Mobile Communication eMBB).
Potential 5G Technology
1) Massive MIMO
MIMO technology means using multiple antennas on transceivers. The technology, successfully applied in fourth-generation networks, will find application in 5G networks. Moreover, if MIMO 2×2 and 4×4 are currently used in networks , then in the future the number of antennas will increase. This technology has two weighty arguments for application at once: 1) the data transfer rate increases almost proportionally to the number of antennas, 2) the signal quality improves when a signal is received by several antennas at the same time due to diversity reception ( Receive Diversity ).
2) Transition to the centimeter and millimeter ranges: Currently, LTE networks operate in frequency ranges below 3.5 GHz. For the full functioning of 5G mobile networks, it is necessary to deploy networks in more free high-frequency ranges. With an increase in the frequency at which information is transmitted, the communication range decreases. This is the law of physics, you can get around it only by increasing the transmitter power, which is limited by sanitary standards. However, it is believed that the base stations of the fifth generation networks will be denser than now, due to the need to create a much larger network capacity. The advantage of the tens of GHz bands is the presence of a large amount of free spectrum.
To provide high-quality service in 5G networks, it is necessary to support both existing standards, such as UMTS , GSM , LTE , and others, for example, Wi-Fi. Base stations using Wi-Fi technology can be used to offload traffic in especially busy places.
4) D2D (Device-to-device)
Device-to-device technology allows devices located close to each other to exchange data directly, without the participation of the 5G network, through the core of which only signal traffic will pass. The advantage of this technology is the ability to transfer data transfer to the unlicensed part of the spectrum, which will further offload the network.
5) The new radio interface in 5G networks and other innovations.
What will 5G mobile networks be?
What will be 5G mobile networks? Technical innovations: virtualization, radio interface, Massive MIMO, Spectrum sharing, New Full Duplex and others
Mobile technology has firmly entered our lives and continues to strengthen its position. Mobile networks are operator networks that provide voice and Internet access on the one hand, and on the other hand a diverse range of gadgets, sensors and smart devices: from smart trackers in the present to smart coffee makers, cars and entire cities in the near future .
According to the rule of 10 years, every decade a generation of mobile communications is replaced . But even one standard within 10 years does not stand still. For example, the fourth generation is classified by LTE , LTE-A ; the WiMAX ; 4,5G and others. If you rely on the rule, there are still about three to four years for 4G dominance . At the same time, information about innovations for 5G networks and testing of pre-5G networks is increasingly appearing . Some vendors and operators receive ambitious statements to deploy them during 2018-2020.
To date, official 5G standards have been formed. Leading players in the global telecommunications market, including Qualcomm, Huawei, Ericsson, Verizon, AT&T, Nokia and others, offer their concepts for future networks by testing their prototypes.
The key feature of each generation, which is announced first of all, is the data transfer rate. However, this is not the only characteristic. Taking into account the development of the Internet of things and, as a result, an increase in the number of connected devices, as well as with an ever-increasing volume of consumed traffic, the following requirements for the fifth generation are defined:
- Network bandwidth over 10 Gb / s.
- Support for simultaneous connection of up to 100 million devices / km 2.
- Data transfer delay no more than 1 ms.
- The distribution between the various services of the required frequency resource.
Virtualized Architecture 5G
Software-Defined Networks ( SDN ) can become an effective technology that will reduce operator equipment and simplify infrastructure maintenance . SDN promotes the digital transformation of companies and the transfer of services to the cloud. The fundamental principle of Software-Defined Networks is remote control of the network and data transmission devices, i.e. programmatically.
In turn, it is assumed that in the optimization of network functions NVF (Network Functions Virtualization) will virtualize the various functions of many network elements of mobile operators, as well as implement a “network on demand”. Those. data will be processed and stored in a virtual environment (“in the cloud”). The classic equipment will retain the function of transmitting user traffic. This approach to fifth-generation networking meets the trends in wireless connectivity, namely convergence. Convergence involves the integration of isolated network objects into a single computing complex. This is also important for smart devices in order to exchange information online.
To organize a specific part of the network, operators use already developed solutions with a set of necessary parameters and specific equipment. Virtualization of 5G and networks “on demand” will allow you to pre-arrange servers and DATA centers for operators, i.e. will provide a “boxed” solution for them, significantly reducing the time and financial costs of introducing new services.
Regarding the network architecture in the fifth generation there are three “cloud” whales that provide its work.
– organization of distributed and centralized technologies
– organization of access systems
– 5G compatibility with 3G and 4G
– session management
– mobility management
– service quality management
– physical data transfer
– ensuring network reliability and speed
– load balancing
Improved radio interface for 5G networks
5G radio interface modelOne of the obstacles to starting 5G is the lack of frequency spectrum. It is assumed that in future networks the resource will expand, including due to the millimeter range. The problem of network coverage and accessibility is supposed to be solved by targeting subscribers, that is, the radio coverage of the network will be adjusted to the needs of subscribers, unlike previous standards.
The efficiency of the fifth generation radio interface will be tripled, i.e. It will skip up to 3 times more data with the same bandwidth. Expected rate: 6 bps at 1 Hz.
For example, as candidates for the title of the 5G radio network interface, Huawei offers the following technical solutions:
1. SCMA (Sparse Code Multiple Access).
This is a low-cost code-based subscriber separation method that does not require delivery confirmation. It works as follows. Before broadcasting over the radio interface, bytes streams of different subscribers from one frequency resource are converted into a codeword using the so-called codebook . The signal recovery at the receiving side is also performed using the codebook.
2. F-OFDM (Flexibel OFDM).
F-OFDM will provide its own set of parameters for each task due to the flexible decomposition into subcarriers, the use of different symbol lengths and the changing value of the cyclic prefix. F-OFDM is an enhanced version of OFDM
3. Polar Code – technology with sub-squared coding complexity.
It is a linear correction code based on the phenomenon of channel polarization.
Polar codes will increase the frequency spectrum by 3 times, allow decoding of linear complexity and significantly increase the data transfer rate.
Related Technologies:A number of other technologies are called upon to create a more perfect and qualitatively different infrastructure of 5G networks. Among them, Massive MIMO, which allows transmitting up to 8 data streams to one subscriber. Massive MIMO is a complex of several antennas that will form very sharp radiation patterns. The multi-beam technology will improve the level of the received signal and eliminate interference from other subscribers, which will positively affect the network bandwidth and the efficiency of using the frequency spectrum.
Bright directions of the concept of the Internet of things are the interaction of M2M (machine-to-machine interaction, Eng. Machine-to-Machine, M2M ) and D2D (device-to-device, Eng. Device to Device ). M2M technology is necessary for the interaction of devices among themselves without the direct participation of a person, i.e. to automate processes. The scope of M2M is quite wide. For example, in payment terminals, security systems, and vehicle coordination systems. Technology reduces the cost of processes, as well as minimizes their dependence on the human factor, and allows you to quickly respond to malfunctioning systems.
Specifications 5G. Comparison of 4G and 5G
- 5G mobile communication technology has the following characteristics:
- Increase the peak speed to 20 Gbit / s downlink (i.e. from the base station to the mobile); and up to 10 Gb / s in the opposite direction.
- The growth of practical speed per subscriber to 100 Mbps or more.
- Increase in spectral efficiency in 5G networks by 2-5 times. On the downlink: 30 bit / s / Hz, on the uplink – 15 bit / s / Hz.
- Increasing energy efficiency by 2 orders. This will allow the Internet of Things devices to work without recharging the battery for 10 years;
- Reducing the time delay on the radio interface to 0.5 ms (for the services of Ultra-Reliable Inter-
- Machine Communication URLLC) and up to 4 ms (for services of the Ultra-Wideband Mobile Communication eMBB).
- Increase in speed of subscriber movement up to 500 km / h.
- Increase in the total number of connected devices to 1 million / km 2 .
- The main services that require the creation of a new generation of mobile communication networks are as follows:
ultra-wideband mobile communication (enhanced Mobile Broadband, eMBB),
ultra-reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC),
mass machine communication (Massive Machine-Type Communications, mMTC).
- The importance of each of the key 5G capabilities for xMBB, uMTC, and mMTC usage scenarios is given in the book Mobile Communications Toward 6G . The degree of importance is estimated by three approximate indicators: “high”, “medium” and “low”.
- In scenarios for eMBB, the following are of high importance:
-practical user data transfer rate,
– traffic per unit area,
– peak data rate,
– energy efficiency
– spectrum efficiency.
In some URLLC scenarios, low latency is high to ensure that critical security services work [see ch. 14.7 of the book “ Mobile communications on the way to 6G ”], as well as a high level of mobility in the field of transportation safety services.
MMTC scenarios are characterized by a high density of connections and the need to maintain the correct functioning of a large number of devices on the network. To implement this scenario, the low cost of the device and its energy efficiency are important.
Services in 5G networks can also be classified by the provided content for subscribers:
- Multimedia services: video in 4K, 8K resolution, 3D-video, online games, services based on holograms and multimedia with the full effect of presence;
- Cloud services: file storage, government services, business applications;
- virtual reality services (Virtual Reality, VR);
- Augmented Reality (AR) services: healthcare, military, education, entertainment;
- Big Data Intelligent Services in order to improve business efficiency (business intelligence, BI), as well as operation and network management (network intelligence, NI);
- Internet of Things (IoT) services based on mass connection of devices: energy, transport, healthcare, trade, public safety, industry, housing and communal services.
- Ultra-low latency services: control of robotic mechanisms, telemedicine, unmanned vehicles, 3D games.
A significant increase in throughput and practical data transfer speed will require a significant expansion and increase in spectrum utilization, as well as an extremely high density of connections, which is unattainable for LTE / LTE-A standards even if they are improved.
Thus, the implementation of fifth-generation networks, especially the increase in data transfer rates, will require a significant increase in the frequency resource. One solution to this problem is frequency refarming – the procedure for replacing the used radio technology with the radio frequencies allocated to the telecommunications operator. For example, in agreement with the regulator, the launch of eNodeB LTE at frequencies allocated to the operator under a 2G or 3G radio network.
This spectrum will not be enough for 5G ultra-fast services, a new spectrum is needed in the bands above 6 GHz. So, at the World Radio Conference in 2019 ( WRC -19), it is planned to allocate additional frequency ranges above 6 GHz for mobile communications.
Fifth generation (5G) mobile networks will be characterized by high speeds (up to 20 Gbit / s downlink and up to 10 Gbit / s uplink).
It is also expected that real speed per subscriber will increase to 100 Mbit / s and more.
The above values of speed increase will be achieved by increasing the spectral efficiency of 5G networks by 2-5 times in comparison with fourth-generation networks. This, in turn, will be available through the use of the following technical solutions:
– Massive MIMO
– Use of the new version of the radio interface New Radio
– Wider bandwidth
5G Frequency Bands
At what frequencies 5G networks will work ? This issue is especially acute, since the implementation of fifth-generation networks, especially increasing data transfer rates, will require a significant increase in the frequency resource. Here are the main approaches.
One solution to this problem is frequency refarming – the procedure for replacing the used radio technology with the radio frequencies allocated to the telecommunications operator. For example, in agreement with the regulator, the launch of eNodeB LTE at frequencies allocated to the operator under a 2G or 3G radio network.
Use of unlicensed frequency bands
Within the framework of 5G networks, it is also planned to actively use unlicensed frequency bands, in particular frequency bands in the 5 GHz band
Using high frequency ranges
Nevertheless, a transition to the region of higher frequencies is considered more promising . The main point when choosing frequency bands at the national level (including use in the Russian Federation) is to ensure the use of 5G networks harmonized with international standards, and for this, accordingly, it is necessary to search at the international level for such frequency bands that would be slightly loaded at the national level level.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) carries out global and regional regulation of the use of private spectrum. In turn, decisions on the allocation of frequencies are made at the World Radio Conference (WRC). At WRC-15, in 2015, it was decided to allocate bands in the range 3.4-3.6 GHz for mobile broadband services, i.e. perspective and for fifth generation networks. However, for 5G ultra-fast services this spectrum will not be enough, a new spectrum is needed in the bands above 6 GHz. So, at the World Radio Conference in 2019 ( WRC -19), it is planned to allocate additional frequency ranges above 6 GHz for mobile communications.
5G networks are expected to use the frequency band from 100 MHz to several GHz. At frequencies up to 40 GHz, the frequency band must be at least 500 MHz. Accordingly, with an increase in the frequency at which data is transmitted, the radius of the cell that the base station can serve decreases. Consequently, fifth-generation networks will be deployed on the basis of Small Cells.
The new frequency ranges proposed for the deployment of 5G systems, as well as the priority of using frequency bands for 5G in the ranges from 10-40.5 GHz and 40.5-100 GHz.
In 5G-NR networks, frequency (FDD) and time (TDD) duplex are used to separate the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) directions, depending on the band used. To improve the radio coverage of networks in high frequency ranges, where the signal from the user terminal is usually limiting in communication range, it is also possible to work with an additional carrier on the uplink (Supplementary Uplink) in a lower frequency range.
In 5G-NR, the maximum permissible bandwidth of one radio channel compared to 4G-LTE networks increased from 20 MHz to 100 MHz for the radio frequency unit FR1. So the width of one radio channel for the FR1 block (depending on the spacing between the subcarriers) can be 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 MHz.
5G Network Standardization
The standardization of mobile networks of 2, 3, 4 and 5 generations is carried out by a partnership project for standardization of 3rd generation systems (3rd Generation Partnership Project, 3GPP.
The initial plan for the preparation of 5G specifications was as follows: the 1st phase of the specifications should be completed before the second half of 2018 (within the framework of Rel’15 3GPP); 2nd phase of specifications – until December 2019 (within the framework of Rel’16 3GPP). But, due to the interest of a number of operators to accelerate the commercialization of 5G systems, 3GPP decided to reduce the standardization time.
So, by the end of 2017, work was completed on creating specifications for the protocols of the first and second levels of the 5G radio interface for high-speed applications (the working name of the New Radio, NR radio interface).
Due to the reduction in standardization time, the 3GPP consortium is forced to reduce the number of options considered and specified.
Release 14 3GPP – Research phase – services, requirements, new radio interface, new architecture.
Release 15 3GPP – Phase 1 – Specifications for the urgent implementation and commercialization of the first use cases
Release 15 3GPP (5G Phase 1) includes the following features:
- Enhanced Mobile Broadband ( eMBB )
- Ultra Reliable Ultra Low Latency Communication (URLLC)
- Bands <52.6 GHz
- OFDM- based Orthogonal Radio Interface
- 5G Offline Architecture (NSA) with LTE System
- EPC Connectivity
- Standalone architecture with the new 5G core
- Interaction with the LTE system
- Separation of management levels and user traffic
- (CP / UP Split)
- Network Slicing
- QoS Procedures
- Session and Mobility Management
- Management of service policies, charging,
- Security features
- Support IMS , SMS
- Interaction with non-3GPP networks without trust access (untrusted Non-3GPP)
Release 16 3GPP (5G Phase 2) includes the following features:
- Interference suppression
- 5G SON & Big Data
- 5G MIMO Enhancements
- 5G location enhancement
- 5G Power Consumption Improvement
- Dual Connectivity Enhancements
- Device capabilities exchange
- Dynamic and flexible TDD
- Non-orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)
- 5G Vehicle to X (V2X)
- 5G Industrial Internet of Things ( IIoT )
- Integration of access and transport channels
- (Integrated Access and Backhaul)
- 5G operation in the unlicensed frequency spectrum
- 5G satellite domain
- 5G above 52.6 GHz
Thus, Release 16 3GPP will increase the efficiency of 5G networks and expand the application of fifth-generation technologies.
5G For People and For Devices?
Every 10 years, mobile technologies take a revolutionary step into the future, opening up new services and opportunities for people. And now the next 10 years expire. The fifth generation (5G) mobile communications network is next in turn. What will they give users and telecom operators?
Throughout its history, mobile networks have undergone significant changes, and they continue to this day. The transmission technologies, the list of services provided to subscribers, etc. are changing and modernizing. In order to fix the most important transformations, the concept of “generation” (“G” – Generation) was introduced.
According to the “ten years” rule, each new generation of mobile communications appears in 10 years. Those. a kind of “mobile revolution” is taking place.
5G (5th Generation – fifth generation) is the official name of the mobile communications standard following the standards of previous generations. This is a new stage in the development of technology, which is designed to expand the possibilities of accessing the Internet through radio access networks.
The relevance of launching 5G networks.
We list the key trends in the mobile industry today:
- Mobile Internet access has become more important and more demanded than fixed;
- Growth forecast for “mobile traffic” – 5 times in 6 years.
- Existing opportunities to increase the capacity of networks at times and maintain a high level of quality of service are practically exhausted.
5G networks will represent a combination of new and existing radio interfaces and will mark the creation of a unified wireless infrastructure providing the widest range of services. The introduction of new and the use of existing services will serve as a driver for a significant increase in traffic in mobile networks.
The main factors for increasing traffic should include:
- Growth in the consumption of video services and an increase in the resolution of video images: by 2024, video will account for 74% of mobile traffic;
- An increase in the number of devices (starting with smartphones and tablets, ending with numerous sensors of the class of Internet of Things (Internet of Things, IoT);
- Increase the pace of application use;
- Increase in popularity of cloud technologies – models of online storage of subscriber data on numerous servers distributed on the Internet;
- Online games and their updates.
Market Expectations from 5G
More than a quarter of users (26%) expect 5G networks to have higher speeds compared to previous generation networks (Fig. 3). Then, with 13%, there are expectations that 5G networks will:
- Have improved network coverage inside and outside buildings;
- Faster Wi-Fi;
5G network requirements
The main technical requirements for 5G networks are
|Peak data rate||20 Gbit / s (to the subscriber); 100 Mbps – 1 Gbps (from the subscriber)|
|Practical speed per subscriber||100 Mbps – 1 Gbps|
2-5x (increase in 2-5 times in comparison with LTE-Advanced )
Up to 500 km / h
100x ( 100x magnification over LTE-Advanced )
Time delay in the radio interface
Up to 0.5 ms (for URLLC) and up to 4 ms (for mMTC)
|Traffic density||≥ 10 Mbps / sq.m|
|Number of active user terminals||≥1 million sq. Km|
|Peak data rate||The maximum achievable data transfer rate in ideal conditions to one subscriber terminal (in Gbit / s)|
|Practical speed per subscriber||Achievable data transfer rate, which is available to the subscriber / device throughout the coverage area (in Mbit / s or Gbit / s)|
|Spectral efficiency||Average data throughput per unit of spectrum resource and per cell (bit / s / Hz)|
|Energy efficiency||It is determined by two aspects:|
|1) on the network side – by the number of information bits transmitted / received from the subscriber per unit of energy consumption in the radio access network (in bit / J);|
|2) on the side of the subscriber terminal, energy efficiency is determined by the number of information bits per unit of energy consumption by the communication module (in bit / J)|
|Time delay in the radio interface||Contribution of the radio network to the time interval from the moment the data packet is sent by the source until it is received by the recipient (in ms)|
|Subscriber Mobility||The maximum speed (in km / h) that can be achieved with a given quality of service (QoS) and continuity of control transfer between radio nodes, which may belong to different levels and / or radio access technologies|
|Traffic density||The total speed of traffic served per unit of geographic area (in Mbps / sq. M)|
|Number of active user terminals||The total number of connected or available subscriber terminals per unit area (per sq. Km)|
Key Services in 5G networks
The fifth generation mobile communication networks should provide support for a variety of services that can be combined into three main basic services:
- Ultra-wideband mobile communication (Extreme Mobile Broadband, eMBB);
- Mass machine communication (Massive Machine-Type Communications, mMTC);
- Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC).
The latter two are especially important in the context of the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT).
The importance of the key features of 5G networks
The degree of importance of each of the key 5G features for eMBB, URLLC, and mMTC usage scenarios. The degree of importance is estimated by three approximate indicators: “high”, “medium” and “low”.
For eMBB class services, the following are of primary importance:
- Practical user data rate;
- Traffic per unit area;
- Peak data rate
- Energy efficiency;
- Spectrum utilization efficiency.
URLLC services are characterized by.
- Low latency for mission critical security services.
- High level of mobility (in the field of transportation safety services).
For mMTC services, the following are of high importance:
- High density of compounds;
- The need to maintain the correct functioning of a large number of devices on the network.
To implement this class of services, the low cost of the device and its energy efficiency are important.
Services in 5G networks can also be classified by the provided content for subscribers:
- Multimedia services: video in 4K, 8K resolution, 3D-video, online games, services based on holograms and multimedia with the full effect of presence;
- Cloud services: file storages, business applications;
virtual reality services (Virtual Reality, VR);
- Augmented Reality (AR) services: healthcare, military, education, entertainment;
- Intellectual services based on Big Data in order to increase business efficiency (business intelligence, BI), as well as operation and network management (network intelligence, NI);
- Internet of Things (IoT) services based on mass connection of devices: energy, transport, healthcare, trade, public safety, industry, housing and communal services;
- Ultra-low latency services: control of robotic mechanisms, tele-medicine, unmanned vehicles, 3D games.
The latency and bandwidth requirements of 5G networks, depending on the type of service.
5G Network Health Concerns:
Regarding exposure to radio waves WHO has already standards which are being strictly followed by Mobile operators while designing wireless network products that both transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) energy as per WHO compliance.5G mobile radio access technologies must comply with established national and international standards and regulations on RF exposure.
The following WHO statements apply to mobile and wireless network technologies implemented by Nokia:
• WHO’s Fact Sheet 304 extracts:
“From all evidence accumulated so far, no adverse short- or long-term health effects have been shown
to occur from the RF signals produced by base stations.”
“Considering the very low exposure levels and research results collected to date, there is no convincing
scientific evidence that the weak radio frequency signals from base stations and wireless networks
cause adverse health effects.”
• WHO’s Fact Sheet 193 extract: “A large number of studies have been performed over the last two
decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk. To date, no adverse health
effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use.”
5G Network Test Result
The first commercial pilot launches of fifth-generation networks are planned in 2018 as part of the World Cup. Not only federal, but also foreign mobile operators and manufacturers of telecommunication equipment are taking part in their development.
One of the leaders on the development of 5G is Huawei. The company tests prototypes of networks both independently and in partnership with other interested participants. Besides
5G is being implemented by Huawei, Sumsung, Qualcomm and others. In Russia, among the federal operators are MTS and MegaFon
Nevertheless, it is early to expect the introduction of full-fledged 5G networks in the near future, despite many tests. Operators are exploring the capabilities of next-generation networks and making marketing announcements. But standardizing structures have yet to resolve many formal issues. Priority is the specification of the standard by 3GPP and the allocation of frequencies for new networks. Undoubtedly, the experimental achievements of operators will accelerate this process and will contribute to the implementation of 5G networks as they are expected: high-speed, environmentally friendly, reliable, convergent and universally available.
5G Network Architecture:A High-Level Perspective
A Cloud-Native 5G Architecture is Key
to Enabling Diversified Service Requirements
5G Will Enrich the Telecommunication Ecosystem
1.1 The Driving Force Behind Network Architecture Transformation
1.2 The Service-Driven 5G Architecture
End-to-End Network Slicing for Multiple
Industries Based on One Physical Infrastructure
Reconstructing the RAN with Cloud
3.1 Multi-Connectivity Is Key to High Speed and Reliability
Cloud-Native New Core Architecture
4.1 Control and User Plane Separation Simplifies the Core Network
4.2 Flexible Network Components Satisfy Various Service Requirements
4.3 Unified Database Management
Self-Service Agile Operation
Cloud-Native Architecture is the Foundation of 5G Innovation
- Amram is a technical analyst and partner at DFI Club Research, a high-tech research and advisory firm .He has over 10 years of technical and business experience with leading high-tech companies including Huawei,Nokia,Ericsson on ICT, Semiconductor, Microelectronics Systems and embedded systems.Amram focuses on the business critical points where new technologies drive innovations.