5 Reasons Why 5G is The Future

5 Reasons Why 5G is The Future

5 Reasons to Look Forward to 5G

The next generation mobile network is more than “just” crazy speeds …

We are approaching a society where everything and everyone is connected through the internet – at tremendous speeds, thanks to the 5G network.

Many mobile operators recently opened 5G pilots in limited areas , and are thus well on track before next year’s large-scale rollout of the super network of the future.

And there are several reasons to rejoice. Here are five of them …

1. Huge speeds
That being said, first of all: 5G will offer incredible speeds.

– Year after year, data usage is growing by between 50 and 100 percent. 5G will enable much more data to be transported than today’s 4G network, and is therefore far more mature to cope with our increasingly advanced data usage.

According to recent 5G test results , we will notice this especially when streaming or using entertainment services:

– Playing on 5G will go like a dream, with speeds at the level of fiber.

The fact that there is hardly any latency to talk about in the 5G network is also something that will delight many online players.

2. Ski-sharing networks
Networked slices are different networks built on top of the underlying mobile network. In practice, this will mean that, for example, health services, industrial areas and zones for autonomous vehicles will each have their own customized network – but on the same mobile network.

– 5G will be so good that companies can have their own data connection configurations tailored to the individual business. The mobile network no longer becomes “one size fits all”.

3. Guaranteed quality of service
With 5G, it is possible to offer guaranteed service quality, or Quality of Service (QoS).

For example, many players, including Telenor, are working to facilitate self-driving, autonomous vehicles. When these roll out on Norwegian roads, it is crucial that they always have a secure, stable and fast connection through the mobile network.

– Imagine a surgeon performing a remote operation using a robot. It will require extremely fast response time from the network, but with 5G this will be possible.

In short, the time it takes for large amounts of data to be sent back and forth in the 5G network will be close to zero, which opens up an enormous number of opportunities that depend on real-time data – something that is not possible today over the 4G network .


4. “IoT” – everything is connected to everything
You may have heard the term before? The Internet of Things, or the Internet of Industry Things, has been talked about for a while now. It is simple to imagine that billions of devices, sensors, machines and things are connected to the Internet at any given time.

Admittedly, this is also being rolled out in today’s 4G network, but the 5G network will have the capacity to handle even more devices.

– Every Sunday when I cook in the oven, I think how nice it would be to be able to sit on the sofa and control the temperature in the oven and have a complete overview of the cooking.

With the 5G network we will see that more and more things are connected to the network, which can give us a more efficient and comfortable everyday life.


5. Full use of VR and AR

Because of the huge amount of data virtual reality equipment requires, many believe that 5G will be able to bring out the full potential of the technology – as data can be sent back and forth between the screens and a real-time server. The same applies to so-called augmented reality (shortened to “AR”).

VR includes technology that closes the outside world and lets you unfold in an artificial reality. With AR you can add digital elements to the reality we actually live.

The popular game Pokémon Go is perhaps the best known example of AR technology. As the technology advances, for example, you can get traffic info in a corner of the windshield as you drive home from work, and you and the pod can build complicated Minecraft structures in the park using their own set of AR glasses.

– Many people have the belief that glasses that can do different things will become a reality.


You must know these 5G terminologies:

Network Slicing: The mobile network can be divided into separate networks that work independently of one another

QoS: “Quality of Service”, security against outages, errors and delays

IoT: “Internet of Things”, billions of devices are connected to the web

VR: “Virtual Reality”, technology that encloses the user in an artificial reality

AR: Augmented Reality — augmented reality, adds digital elements to the real world

IoMT:”Internet of Medical Things”, billions of medical related devices are connected to the web

IoIT:”Internet of Industrial Things”, billions of industry devices are connected to the web

why 5g is the future
Evolution of 5G in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)

Evolution of 5G in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)

Role of 5G in Medical Health: First Test Case

Norway’s first private individual, who works in the Emergency Medical Center (AMK) Inland, to connect to a 5G mobile network. He knows that good coverage can mean life or death.This is Europe’s first use case of 5g applications in healthcare.

He has truly experienced the importance of a functioning 5G mobile network.He has tried everything a mobile can do and clearly notices the difference from LTE mobile network.

“I notice that there is better sound and much faster network. Whether I’m streaming movies or sending video clips.”

As per him every day we notice how important it is to have a proper network, when there are people who need help and need to notify.With a functioning 5G network you can send ECG measurements of patients to HQ hospitals faster, you can film car wrecks to get an impression of the extent of damage after a traffic accident.
And it can be easier to find people who have lost their way in the mountains, he said.

This is just a start of evolution of 5G in internet of medical things (IoMT).

This is 5G

The hyper-connected community of revolutionary technology on 5G is soon a reality. It means a huge number of things connected to the web, high speeds, minimal delays, increased reliability and brand new possibilities for using the web.

What is 5G?

We have been developing mobile networks with new generations about every ten years since analogue NMT (1G) came in 1981, 2G in 1992, 3G in 2001 and 4G in 2010. Around 2020 comes 5G.

5G will provide us with two main types of communication solutions: The first provides us with a higher capacity mobile broadband network and enhanced user experiences. The second major type provides a 5G network that will enable special networking solutions for many different purposes with different functionality requirements. It will be designed for billions of things connected to the web, for very fast response times, and for increased security and reliability.

The big difference between the 5G network and previous generations is that 5G is designed to provide networks and services to various industrial and community-driven equipment units, as well as services and networks for the smartphone.

How would you like to experience 5G?

In addition to mobile broadband, 5G will be offered as fixed broadband access to households and businesses in areas without fiber networks. It will also be arranged for broadcasting of radio and TV. The emergency services will have their own safe and effective solutions for emergency situations, including for coordination of communication with audio, video, maps, positioning, first aid, drone management etc. Companies, government agencies and households will be able to create their own “private” networks of sensors and machines that can be controlled and controlled via the network. Vehicles will be connected and combined for safer and more efficient traffic management. In the health sector, 5G could be used for telemedicine to diagnose and treat patients where they are. In the energy sector, 5G can be used to measure and control production, distribution and consumption in more environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways. In the food industry, 5G will enable more efficient and environmentally friendly production and distribution with the use of sensors that monitor and quality assure the entire food chain from sea, field and barge to the dinner table.

5G is expected to be a driver in the digital transformation of the ICT community of the future, for example, with sensor and communication solutions for smart cities, autonomous transport solutions and emergency networks. Individuals will experience new and improved digital services on their smartphone delivered over 5G. These services will be much faster, more accessible and more secure than today’s services. Individuals will also benefit from sensor and communication solutions for smart cities, autonomous transport solutions and emergency networks. Other 5G services will utilize the available speed and enhanced security for the transmission of virtual or customized reality, such as to “ambulance hospitals” or “firefighter support systems”.

When will 5G be available?

From the start, 5G will be gradually built on top of the 4G network. 5G technology is standardized in two phases, in 2018 and 2019 with international approval in 2020/21, but it is difficult to determine when 5G becomes widely available.

5G is under development and piloted in Europe, Asia and the USA starts with pilots for testing among other things. self-driving buses in 2018. During the Olympics in South Korea it was tested, among other things. 360-degree TV services and 5G-based robots. Commercial development is expected to start in 2020 as needed, but it will not be a massive rollout as we have seen for 3G and 4G. In the coming years, international research and innovation within 5G will focus on the evaluation of 5G.

The KPIs (“key performance indicators”) and piloting of solutions for different applications in different industries.

What is unique about 5G?

5G will come with a host of new and unique features, compared to the 4G network we have become. Three important examples of areas that will benefit from 5G, so-called industrial verticals, are autonomous transport solutions, the energy sector and the media industry. One conceivable transport solution may be the interconnection of cars (“platooning”) with communication between the cars and from the cars to the network which require extremely low delay and strong robustness. This will allow cars and traffic signals to be synchronized for optimum driving speed and density of cars in all conditions.

For the energy sector, however, a massive IoT system with large amounts of sensors that constantly provide new information and data for monitoring, control and big data analysis can be critical.

In the media world, consumers may want to have access to a 5G network at extreme speeds, enabling high quality streaming in real time, preferably with an AR experience as well.

In particular, five features of 5G offer great potential for new applications, helping to propel the hyper-connected community and enable much of the revolutionary technology we hear about otherwise:

Ski-divided network

5G enables operation of a more flexible and programmable network. This is possible through the use of new technology for logical or network slices. Various logical networks will be created on top of this extremely flexible infrastructure, and will deliver as different networking infrastructure as the application requires. In practice, this means that it will be experienced as services with very different needs, such as health services, industrial areas and zones for autonomous vehicles, each having their own network, within the same network – tailored to their needs, and without the expense of each other.

Robustness and Quality

Guarantees This disc sharing also offers guaranteed quality of service (QoS) for various industries, services and uses – which is especially important for critical functions (such as health and emergency services, transport and industrial production), and also makes it safer to become more digital. It ensures a robustness in the network, which enables zero-tolerance services for failures, errors and delays, to use Internet-based services and systems in a whole new way.

Extremely low delays

5G will offer much lower delays in the network than before, some estimate down to 1 ms. In a 4G network, the delay is about 25 ms. As mentioned above, this will be especially important for self-driving cars – which can then communicate for both safer and more efficient transport, when a car knows that the car in front brakes in what it does, it is both secured against a potential collision and can Avoid queuing during synchronized movements. In health, too, low delays can be considered essential, for example with the use of remote-controlled robotic surgery – which you do not want to have any delays, but have near perfect response time from machine and patient in one hospital, to the doctor who controls the operation from a another hospital. 5G offers ultra reliability in these delays, uRLLC (ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication),

Massive machine type communication (mMTC)

Possibility of massive volumes of things connected to the network 5G technology will also make it possible to have a large number of things connected to the network, known as massive machine type communication (mMTC).
We already see that most people have a smartphone, but the great growth of connections is sensors, machines and things connected to the internet – the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). These things also have very different needs: some will exchange tiny amounts of data and ensure long battery life (like a parking sensor buried in the tarmac), while others, like a self-driving car, have plenty of power, but will transfer large amounts of data to cloud. In order for all the technology that is now expected to be implemented within the broad IoT concept, one must have a network that can handle such massive volumes of things on the same network. It offers 5G, which enables one million connected things on the same network, per square kilometer.

High speeds

The least radically different from 4G to 5G, but noteworthy, is the evolution in the speed of the network we will be able to offer. This is not only necessary to meet the strong growth in data traffic in the web that we already see, where more and more content requires large amounts of data. An example here is whether more and more people should stream 4K quality video. It also means that completely new uses are emerging. For example, far more advanced functions and operations can be done in the “cloud” because data is transmitted quickly in the network and does not need to be stored or processed locally. This allows mobile devices to become more advanced and do more demanding things than we have been used to. The big speeds will also be a driver for faster development in the so-called augmented reality,

Some of these features may also be fully or partially incorporated into the constantly evolving 4G network (so-called 4.5G). This means that they will be available even where no 5G coverage will be available, but you will still rely on 4G. Therefore, there is a constant development of the 4G network as well, which will help drive the digitization of society. 5G will enable entirely new uses for the technologies we already have, and will be needed to make use of the technologies we expect will come. The practical consequence of this is that if we are going to be able to take advantage of all the opportunities that new technology gives us, we rely on a better digital infrastructure than the one we have today. That’s why 5G is about far more than just creating a new network,

From one G to another

We are now approaching the fifth generation of mobile networks. Evenly, it can be said that there has been a change about every ten years. Why? Because each “G” in a sense experiences an expiration date. Not as a food, which you know is going to be bad – but, rather, we see that technology in society is evolving in a way that the network is unable to keep up with serving. For example, 3G opened for mobile data, but was not adapted to the revolution that led to the iPhone’s entry in 2007 for data traffic and applications for mobile phones. It was 4G as a dedicated computer network, which made the smartphones shine. The shifts are not driven by needs alone, but also by what can be offered. Networking technology is constantly improving. Then new standards are needed.

Thus, for a G is not a single technological solution, but a standard consisting of a number of technologies, which describe how good a network should be and how it should be built – among other things.

The dynamics are so simple: We need more and we can offer more. It’s the same thing that drives the race against 5G.

The Technology of The Year 2020 Will Be 5G

The Technology of The Year 2020 Will Be 5G

5G TECHNOLOGY: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND NEW CHALLENGES

What 5G technology can do ? What can we do with 5G Technology ? Why do we need 5G Network ?

Well these are the most asked queries we receive from around the world. Let’s see how game changing cutting edge technology, 5G , going to change our life in 2020 onward. 

Even after LTE progress does not stand still: people demand high speed internet access, and thanks to IoT, more and more equipment “wants” to connect to the global network. How to solve both problems at once?

From time to time, the media really delights with news of the upcoming 5G era. Clients are bribed by the claimed high speed access. Next Generation Mobile Networking Alliance (NGMN – an association of mobile operators, suppliers, manufacturers and research institutes) defines the following requirements:

  • The data transfer speed is tens of Mbps for tens of thousands of users at the same time.
  • Data transfer rate of 100 Mbps in megacities.
  • The data transfer rate of 1 Gb / s at the same time for many users on the same floor.
  • Connect hundreds of thousands of wireless sensors simultaneously.
  • Higher spectral efficiency compared to 4G.
  • Coverage Improvement.
  • Improving signal transmission efficiency.
  • Significantly lower latency compared to LTE.
  • The frequency spectrum approved by the FCC on July 14, 2016 includes frequencies of 28 GHz, 37 GHz and 39 GHz.

It is worth noting that 5G exists only in the form of the 15th release of specifications and in periodic performance tests, for example, as in Japan.

Japan Tests 5G:
Japanese mobile operator NTT docomo has built a 5G network capable of broadcasting 8K video for VR glasses.

Many of us are just starting to master the 4K image, but technology continues to evolve and 8K resolution will be next for large screens. For reference: the screen in 8K resolution in terms of the number of pixels is equal to four screens in 4K resolution (8192 × 5120, aspect ratio 16:10, 41.9 Megapixels).

The broadcast system allows you to broadcast high-resolution VR content from anywhere using 5G networks. The solution consists of an 8K 3D camera with the ability to record 360 degree video, a Yamaha spherical 3D microphone with 64 audio channels, several data processing servers and a 5G base station. Note that the 3D camera broadcasts 9 videos in 4K at the same time. It is proposed to use Oculus Quest as client equipment.

To achieve this goal, taking into account the requirements for processing video and audio streams, as well as taking into account the bandwidth capabilities, NTT Docomo used a new 8K video encoder with 60FPS to limit the load.

Several real-time data processing servers convert 9 video streams of 4K 3D cameras into 2 streams with 8K resolution in 3D format with a 360-degree panorama. Another server converts 64 sound channels of a 3D microphone into 36 channels of 3D sound. Then all this is compressed and synchronized for streaming over 5G.

Virtual reality technology is only developing. Long development is determined not only by high requirements to the hardware, but also by the massiveness of the devices themselves. In such conditions, it’s difficult to talk about mobility, because no one wants to be “chained” to a PC with wires or constantly be in search of a great Wi-Fi signal.

UK 5G Public Testing
Great news from Vodafone. Manchester Airport launched a public access test using 5G technology. Specially for these purposes, the telecom operator placed a portable Gigacube router (Figure 2) using Massive MIMO technology in the airport terminal. Its characteristic feature is the use of multi-element digital antenna arrays. In simple terms, user terminals will always be much smaller than base station antennas.

Vodafone also uses a 5G Blast Pod . Using Wi-Fi allows visitors to get an idea of ​​5G using existing devices. Users are given free admission to the NOW TV service. As an example, it is proposed to download an episode from the recent Tin stars series in 45 seconds, and the entire series in about 6 minutes. On a 4G network, this would take more than 26 minutes.

Vodafone plans to expand to other major airports and train stations across the UK.

US 5G Prospects and Promises
T-Mobile in their blog declare the fight against Cable monopoly and claim that they will be able to create an alternative to the classic broadband access even in rural areas.

The motivation for this is the FCC report, which says that 28.9% of urban private homes and 61.1% of private homes in rural areas are connected to only one service provider or do not have access to the Internet at all. There is no need to talk about high-speed access. The report details that 45% of private houses in cities and 76% of private houses in rural areas do not have high-speed access or services are provided by only one operator.

According to the business plan, by 2024 T-Mobile is going to connect more than 9.5 million subscribers to the broadband access services using 5G means.

In the near future, the company plans to begin installing 4G wireless routers operating in the LTE T-Mobile network. Under this pilot project, called Home Internet, users get the T-Mobile In Home router for free. The user’s task is simple: unpack the equipment and plug it into the network. In the future, it implies upgrading the router to 2.5 GHz in the frequency spectrum and the ability to work in 5G networks.

What about 5G in Russia?
Russia is also undergoing tests. According to the information , in April 2017, MTS conducted a series of tests at the Otkritie Arena stadium in Moscow. The base station, operating in the range of 14.5-15.3 GHz, transmitted a signal to a moving prototype smartphone at speeds up to 25 Gbit / s. The achieved speed allows you to download an hour-long movie in HD-quality in less than 3 seconds.

Two months later, Megafon together with Huawei updated the speed record, reaching the limit of 35 Gb / s. At their forum booth, the companies showed in action a 5G base station with TDD mode in the frequency range of 70 GHz (E-Band) with a bandwidth of 2 GHz.

Competition
After the publication of the bandwidth test results, the Internet community began an active discussion of the 5G competition with the “wired” broadband and Wi-Fi operators. A user will ask: “Why do I need wires when wireless access is several times faster?”

Technical experts from various organizations in their conversations on relevant Internet forums give counter-arguments:

The frequencies used in the air, channel width, the number of clients impose their own restrictions on the operation of wireless base stations, especially in TDD mode.
Radio is a common medium, and it gives no guarantees for speed or performance, unlike fiber optic or copper cable.
Cells of telecom operators also require the creation of radio links for communication with data centers and among themselves.
LTE is already delivering speeds of more than 100 megabits / s, and mass outflow is not observed.
There are not so many routers for LTE distribution. Configuring the “modem + wireless router” bundle is too complicated for most users.

Specialists in the field of radio engineering emphasize that these speed records were achieved at high frequencies of 15 and 70 GHz, while the cellular network operates in the ranges from 453 to 2690 MHz. As a result, modern client mobile devices will not be able to work in 5G networks at the declared speeds. And what about telecom operators? Need to free satellite frequency bands. 

Hardware Replacement
Telecommunications operators will be forced to make large-scale changes in the structure of their networks. To achieve the stated speeds on the cell towers, it will be necessary to replace the base stations and antennas, as well as PPC (equipment of radio bridges between the towers). It is expected that additional masts of cellular communications will be installed.

The most ambitious and costly changes will occur within the network of operators. The usual infrastructure of the mobile operator, shown in Figure 3, will soon become obsolete, and it will be replaced by a new one.

It is understood that the core of the network will require updating of elements such as BRAS , DPI , billing, CG-NAT , DNS and DHCP servers. There are several reasons:

Previously declared access speeds;
introduction of a dual stack of IPv4 and IPv6, once promised support for the Internet of things.
It should be noted that a change in the order of identification is expected. The so-called 5G Subscription Permanent Identifie (according to the concept ) will absorb IMEI and be supplemented with new network identifiers like a MAC address. The old IMEI will be replaced by PEI (Permanent Equipment Identifier) ​​- a permanent equipment identifier.

Conclusion
5G networks and virtual reality technologies open up new possibilities in various types of activities, whether it’s video games, broadcasting concerts and sports programs, medical operations and much more. If for a 5G subscriber these are solid advantages, for telecom operators there are new problems and tasks that can already be started to be solved by replacing the equipment and software of data networks.

IoT Security Threats and How to Handle Them

IoT Security Threats and How to Handle Them

What are the biggest IoT security risks and challenges

High-speed 5G mobile networks not only connect people more efficiently, but also enhance the interconnection and control of machines, objects and devices. High data rates, low latency, and high capacity are good for both consumers and businesses. But as one company that introduced 5G early experiences, these benefits also carry new, significant security risks.

Global home electronics manufacturer Whirlpool has already begun building 5G at one of its plants. The company still uses IoT devices for predictive maintenance, environmental control, and process monitoring over its existing local area Wi-Fi network, but the introduction of 5G will enable autonomous forklifts and other vehicles not possible with Wi-Fi.

“The plant is heavily metal,” said Douglas Barnes, Whirlpool’s North American IT and OT manufacturing infrastructure application manager. WiFi is reflected in the metal. I built a mesh Wi-Fi in the factory, but I can’t help but have too much metal.5G passes through walls and is not reflected by metal. ”

“When 5G is deployed at the plant, Whirlpool will see a breakthrough,” he says. “We will be able to introduce true autonomous vehicles across the facility, covering everything from maintenance and delivery to manufacturing operations.” This business case is significant and can provide significant cost savings. The 5G rewards are great. ”

Vans said the test has already been completed to verify the normal operation of the autonomous vehicle. The budget will be allocated starting this month, and vehicles will be based on 5G by the end of the year. “If the results are good, the autonomous vehicle business case will work everywhere else,” Vans said.

Vans is well aware of the cybersecurity issues already occurring in the enterprise and the extent to which all these issues will amplify as the transition to 5G moves. Whirlpool worked with 5G partner AT & T to address the concerns. “I wrestle with security issues every day.” “Before we started, the first thing we talked with AT & T was how to build a secure network.”

The following are seven key areas that companies such as Whirlpool should consider when developing a 5G implementation plan for IoT.

1. 5G Network Traffic Encryption and Protection.

With 5G, the amount of traffic flowing through these networks increases dramatically with the number of intelligent devices connected to the network. According to Gartner, the number of enterprise and vehicle IoT devices will reach 5.8 billion, up 21 percent next year, from 4.8 billion, the expected number of IoT endpoints this year. For attackers, this means a much richer network of targets than it is today.

According to Vans, Whirlpool will configure the 5G antenna to encrypt all 5G traffic and accept only authorized traffic to address this issue. “When we add a device, we configure it as an acceptable device in 5G,” said Barnes. It does not receive traffic from devices that are not included in the whitelist. In addition, the traffic is encrypted, so don’t worry. “If someone picks up the signal, there is very little that can be done.”

Vans said that when traffic leaves the local network and is sent over public 5G or the Internet, the content is protected via a secure VPN tunnel, “we’ve done this in advance in case we need to communicate with the outside using 5G.”

2. Protect and Isolate Vulnerable Devices:

The next potential weakness is the device itself. Vans said, “There is a weak security awareness throughout the industry.” In particular, industrial equipment uses its own operating system and often does not have the ability to install patches, or patches are often prohibited under licenses. “It’s not designed with patches in mind,” Vans said.

Jonathan Tanner, senior security researcher at Barracuda Networks, said that the vast majority of IoT security mistakes haven’t been fixed, and some devices have problems that cannot be fixed by a firmware update, or that there is no mechanism to update the firmware. Even if device manufacturers add security to the next generation of devices, the older, unsafe devices will still be used.

Tanner disregards this and ignores security researchers who point out vulnerabilities. “There are cases where companies that make vulnerable devices go out of business. In this case, the vulnerable device is left untouched. ”

What should companies do with insecure IoT devices? Whirlpool’s Vans said using network isolation along with other network security technologies could help. Barnes said, “The whirlpool uses a two-tiered approach. The first layer is network security, which monitors all traffic, and the second layer is protocol-based security, looking for malicious activity embedded in the protocol through deep packet inspection. ”

In addition, general security hygiene applies, such as patching immediately above this layer, regular security audits for all devices, and inventorying all devices on the network.

3. Prepare for Larger DDoS attacks

In general, 5G is not less secure than previous generation wireless technologies. Kevin McNami, head of the Nokia Threat Intelligence Lab, said, “5G brings new security features that aren’t actually available in 4G or 3G. In 5G, the entire control plane is transferred to a Web services type of environment, which is strongly authenticated and very secure. “

This improvement is offset by increased opportunities for botnets,” McNami said. “In 5G, the bandwidth available to devices is significantly increased. As bandwidth increases, IoT bots will increase.” This bandwidth will of course increase. ”The

increased bandwidth can be used to find more vulnerable devices and spread the infection, increasing the number of vulnerable devices that the botnet can find. As Whirlpool says, companies use IoT devices a lot, as do other types of organizations, including government agencies, and

when 5G is deployed, they will be able to deploy the device in remote, difficult-to-maintain locations. Interest in the Oregon Wireless Internet Service Providers Union “A lot of sensors record everything from weather to air quality to video feeds,” says co-chairman Cameron Camp. “There’s a lot of new machines that are likely to be hacked and botnetized.” It will be difficult to find and respond to hacks. ”

IoT devices are also typically used for a long time. The user does not have to replace the device that performs the desired function well. Attackers prefer a stealthy approach in order not to draw attention. Even if a patch is released or a manufacturer releases a more secure version of the device, it’s useless if the customer doesn’t want to change it.

Many smart IoT devices, on the other hand, run a comprehensive operating system, such as embedded Linux, allowing them to behave almost like normal computers. It is therefore possible to use infected devices to host illegal content, malware, command control data and other useful systems and services for attackers. Users don’t consider these devices to be computers that need antivirus, patches, or updates. Many IoT devices do not keep logs for inbound and outbound traffic. It’s even harder to get rid of botnets because attackers can stay active without being caught.

Eventually, all three threats increase: the number of devices that can be exploited, the bandwidth available for botnet proliferation, and the bandwidth available for devices to launch DDoS attacks. Many devices are still unprotected and some cannot be patched at all, so in a 5G environment, companies must be prepared for a much larger DDoS attack than they are today.

4. Switching to IPv6 May Replace Private Internet Addresses with Public Addresses
As the number of devices increase and communication speeds improve, companies may want to use IPv6 instead of IPv4, which is now commonly used. IPv6, with longer IP addresses, has become an Internet standard since 2017.

The maximum number of available addresses for IPv4 addresses is 4.3 billion, which is not enough. Some registrars have faced address shortages since 2011 and organizations have begun their transition to IPv6 in 2012. But according to data from The Internet Society, less than 30 percent of current Google users access the Google platform via IPv6.

Nokia’s McNami said that many organizations, and nearly all home devices and many cell phone networks, use private IPv4 addresses instead of IPv6, “private IPv4 addresses are not exposed to the Internet, providing natural protection from attacks.”

As the world moves to 5G, carriers will have to switch to IPv6 to support billions of new devices. But if the carrier chooses a public IPv6 address rather than private, the device is exposed to the Internet. McNami said this isn’t an issue with IPv6 or 5G, but it could lead to a situation where companies that switch devices from IPv4 to IPv6 inadvertently leave them in the public address space.

5. Increased Attack Surface due to Edge Computing:


There is a growing interest in edge computing among customers or companies looking to reduce latency and improve performance for their distributed infrastructure. When 5G is deployed, the communication capabilities of endpoint devices are enhanced, further increasing the benefits of edge computing.

At the same time, edge computing also dramatically increases the potential attack surface. Companies that have not yet started their transition to zero-trust network architecture should look at this architecture before investing heavily in edge computing infrastructure. If you actually build a zero-trust network architecture, security should be treated as the most important consideration, not as a follow-up.

6. New IoT Companies Focus on Preoccupation, Not Security:


When the IoT gold rush begins, new players will enter the market and existing ones will launch new devices ahead of time. Barracuda’s Tanner says there are more IoT devices than security researchers already looking for vulnerabilities, and that new manufacturers will add new cycles of security mistakes.

Tanner notes that as the same mistake continues to occur, the number of vulnerabilities reported on IoT devices is not decreasing, but increasing. “There is not enough learning from events in other companies in the industry.”

“The company doesn’t care about security,” says Joe Coates, who focuses on corporate network intrusions, leading penetration testing at A-lign Compliance and Security. Earlier this year, I bought five devices related to the ability to turn the lights on and off, and I could access four of them outside the home. The test mode embedded in the device was released by the vendor without being removed. ”

Cortes said all companies want to enter the market first. Many companies use ready platforms such as embedded Linux to get devices to market as quickly as possible. Cortes said, “I recently got IoT malware that can bring a device down with seven lines of code.” Cortes said that manufacturers who do not tighten their devices are vulnerable.

For example, an attacker could use this malware to shut down a plant or critical infrastructure, or to hold a company’s system hostage and demand a ransom. “That’s not happening yet,” Cortes said. “5G is not widely deployed.” As 5G adoption increases and IoT increases, it is likely that exploitation of industrial systems, such as the manufacturing industry, will increase significantly. ”

7. Everyone is Responsible for IoT security:


The biggest obstacle to IoT security is psychological obstacles, not technology. Nobody wants to take responsibility. Everyone wants to pass on to someone else. The buyer accuses the vendor of not making the device secure. Vendors blame buyers for finding cheap, insecure products. Avoiding responsibility for IoT security in the 5G world leads to even greater wave lengths.

In a last year’s Radware survey, 34 percent of respondents said that the responsibility for IoT security rests with their device manufacturers, 11 percent with service providers, 21 percent with individual consumers, and 35 percent with business organizations. Mike O’Malley, vice president of strategy at Radware, said: “In other words, there is no consensus.” O’Malley also said that consumers have no knowledge or skills. Companies do not hire enough people. Manufacturers are so numerous and different that they are difficult to control.

Companies can hire service providers to take some of the responsibility off, but that doesn’t solve the problem of unprotected consumer devices, passive manufacturers in change, and the absence of consistent global regulations and enforcement.

Everyone should be responsible for IoT security. Buyers should ensure that their products do not use a default password or test mode, that communications are encrypted and authenticated, and that devices are regularly patched and updated. Vendors should stop selling unprotected devices and consider security at the start of the product design process, rather than adding features later.

Artificial Intelligence in Telecom – From Hype to Reality – AI

Artificial Intelligence in Telecom – From Hype to Reality – AI

Surprising Ways Telecom Companies Use Artificial Intelligence

AI is having enough hype through media, researchers and vendors. Innovative organizations are putting a lot of efforts in AI research to make full benefits of it.

We all know about Sophia a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong based company Hanson Robotics. She looks quite human like and has been in talk shows a lot. She has also been given citizen ship in Saudi Arabia as being first artificial intelligence based human robot. She is being consider as intelligent but in reality, she is thoughtless whose intelligence is very basic. She can read a manuscript, on stage can perform a speech and she can answer questions that are pre-programmed. But If we ask her question out of script she can’t answer. Why is it so? Why is the gap here?

Well there is a basic difference of implementation AI.

Artificial General Intelligence

Machines that almost same level of intelligence that humans have, are expected in AGI products. This is what we all are expecting.

Artificial Narrow Intelligence

Machines have ability to perform specific tasks extremely well. These are computers that are trained to do simple and basic level of tasks only more efficiently than that of humans. This ANI based products are more in utilization by industry now.  i.e a machine that is trained to identify objects in images

A computer that can identify brain tumor cannot detect tiger in a picture because it has not been trained on that.

And certainly that’s the kind of AI, organizations like Telecom operators are trying to implement.5G  , IoT and big data will be handled by Narrow AI models to perform small task efficiently and fast.

Operators can train AI models such that, input from big data and after processing give expected results about customers. Mobile operators are also training the network based on alarms to predict whether there will be a failure or not. We just need to in put this data to AI model to learn and give out put as per desired results. It will also learn the relationship that if a new related input is given then it can predict the answer.  Similarly a new customer is added then machine will learn that client will churn or not.

This is very basic application of AI today in mobile telecom industry.

One more interesting and quite effective application of AI in telecom is dynamic carrier allocation.

 Artificial Narrow Intelligence trained model can add or remove additional carrier based on learning from previous weeks trends using capacity. No more manual allocation and wastage of resources.

Another example of machine learning using AI is

Automatize Customer Care:

Machines are trained to identify patterns in the text and predict problems for better solution offers.  

This is pure automation, quick and competent customer support application.

Challenges:

Challenges that mobile operators are facing at the moment is, they are not having enough samples of issues to predict more accurately.Only those queries are addressed well where model is having high volume data.

These are very concrete examples that are being used in Telecom companies today.We are seeing that AI will be a part of all domains in near future to automate tasks and improve productivity whether in Network, Customer care, Marketing, HR or Finance etc.

How to Adapt AI in Mobile industry:

First of all companies need to upgrade the technology stakes, upgrade the infrastructure and competence to work with AI. Especially need to fix the first mile and last mile of AI.

1st mile means data readiness. To be able to collect, store, process to make available the data for training AI models.

Last mile is infrastructure on which AI based models work and utilization of predictions from AI models to operations.

So deploying AI in Telecom sector effectively, mobile operators needs to work on refine enough big data and then focus on applying outputs in business operations.

Key barriers that must be solved and must have things for AI readiness:

  • Agile data Access Processes.
  • Experimental platform with the right tool.
  • Culture for experimentation and failing.  
  • Domain and AI expert collaboration / cross function operational model
5G in South Asia: Opportunities & Challenges

5G in South Asia: Opportunities & Challenges

Imagine 5G in South Asia, 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world.

Just a year after introducing 4G, the telecom sector in South Asia is turning its attention to move on to the era of 5G. While the gap between these two successive generations of mobile technologies seem quite narrow, 5G’s over-arching impact beyond voice and data has made it a must-have tool to keep South Asia  relevant in the 4th Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0).

Unlike the earlier generations, 5G can bring more than an incremental change for an emerging economy of South Asia . Its underlying architecture has the potential to enable the next wave of productivity and innovation across the subcontinent – thanks to its gigabit speeds, improved network performance and reliability.

However, some of the most talked 5G uses-cases like autonomous vehicles and robotic surgery might not be applicable in context of South Asia. This is because, such futuristic use-cases requires advanced market structure and availability of digital and supporting economic infrastructure. Rather an improvised and contextual 5G would be more appropriate for the country largely driven by digitization and automation needs in the government and business sectors.

5G Overview
Unlike early generations of mobile networks, 5G will represent a significant shift in the telco industry’s focus away from voice and more towards mobile broadband and increased industrial applications. In other words, 5G will be use-case driven. Instead of rolling out a tower and offering voice and data services right away, 5G will solve problems across a range of sectors—including transportation, health, manufacturing and agriculture—using a combination of device, connectivity and application.

5G use cases can be divided into the following 3 categories: a) enhanced Mobile Broadband, b) massive Machine Type Communications, and c) Critical communications. Apart from these use-cases, 5G has the potential to allow tailoring of requirements for each of these use-cases categories within the same network.

Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)

eMBB is designed to provide an improved “Unlimited” mobile experience for consumers. Superfast 5G networks with peak data rate of >10 Gbps will enable consumers to view rich content in more places, supporting the streaming of live events and high-resolution media. Increased network capacity of 10,000 times compared to today’s networks will support more users, even in crowded areas, such as large public events, and at peak times providing at least 100 Mbps throughput per user.eMBB will likely be the focus of early 5G deployments as it can immediately support the growing communications requirements for an emerging digital economy like South Asia.

Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC)

The mMTC will support widespread and dense deployment of sensors and other network-connected devices enabling massive Internet-of-Things (IoT) deployment, such as asset tracking, smart agriculture, smart cities, energy monitoring, smart home, remote monitoring. The mMTC will significantly reduce the power requirements (battery life of up to 10 years) and provide flexible coverage across different spectrum bands with the ability to support over 1 Million devices per Sq-km.

Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC)

The URLLC will take human-to-machine interaction to the next level offering sub-millisecond latency and ultra-reliable (i.e. 1 in a million) communications networks supporing the delivery of critical communications—playing role in the technology ecosystem supporting autonomous vehicles, smart grids, remote patient monitoring and telehealth, industrial automation.

5G Opportunities for South Asia


The 5G opportunities can be divided into 3 broader segments – Consumer, Business and Government.

Consumer:

Super-fast, yet affordable 5G networks shall bring new services and experiences to the 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world’s population. The first wave of 5G deployments are envisaged to be primarily based on eMBB use-cases and shall provide unlimited mobile and home broadband experience for the consumers – far better than today’s 4G and WiFi connectivity. Through ultra-high speed and low-latency connections, consumers will be able to avail a broad-range of data-hungry services, such as HD streaming and gaming services, seamless video conferencing and sharing, as well as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) services. All these services are expected to be availed keeping the same monthly budget, thanks to at least 10 times cost reduction from 4G to 5G based data services.

Business:

The eMBB services will also help the fledgling SME and Corporate businesses of the countries to migrate to Cloud supporting various cloud-based software, unified communication and conferencing needs. Using the mMTC, the companies in the RMG, Pharmaceuticals and FMCG sectors will be able to deploy various assembly line and supply chain automation techniques, which will significantly increase their efficiency. On the other hand, applications like asset tracking, logistics & workers’ safety will help the businesses to improve their productivity.

Government:

Perhaps, the most transformative impacts of 5G will be in the government sector for South Asia. 5G powered Smart Cities can implement use-cases like smart parking, smart waste-management, smart street-lights, smart public safety, etc and enable smart decision making and planning to optimize the quality of life for citizens and increase productivity.

5G can accelerate implementation of Smart Grid/Utilities in South Asia  to a great extent, enabling use-cases like smart metering, service quality monitoring, fault localization, automation and control, infrastructure management and demand management. The utilities can utilize these services to better manage between demand & supply, improve service quality & reliability, and ensure precision billing and revenue collection. On the other hand, customers can monitor and manage their consumption in near real-time and pay bills and get notified about alerts and outages through their smart phones.

Apart from the above, 5G can help government implement digitization and automation projects across several sectors like health, education and agriculture.

Key Challenges for 5G deployment in South Asia:

Despite many potential benefits, there are significant challenges exist to implement 5G and get the most out of it. Operators are skeptical about the business case given the high-levels of investment needed to deploy 5G networks, as well as its dependencies on device and apps ecosystem readiness. In such a scenario, actions from the policy-makers will make a great difference in facilitating a robust 5G investment case.

Some of these key challenges are outlined below:

Spectrum: The key features of 5G, i.e. speed, reliability and capacity mainly come from more and new bands of spectrum. Price and allocation modality of spectrum will play a major in the business cases of the 5G operators. With the current level of spectrum price, operators will hardly see any business case for immediate adoption of 5G in South Asia . Moreover, lots of clean-ups and harmonization are required in the 700 MHz, 3.5 GHz and 26-28 GHz bands to make them available for 5G deployment. Affordable access to these spectrum and a clear road map of their availability are the keys to encourage investments in 5G.

Infrastructure: Along with spectrum, easy and affordable access to infrastructure (poles and towers, antenna, fiber network) is also critically important to ensure 5G capacity and coverage. Hence, attention needs to be paid to reform some of the guidelines and arrangements related to authority policies, so that all players can offer their complementary assets and capabilities under a harmonized 5G infrastructure sharing guideline .

Policy: Unlike 2G/3G/4G, the use-case driven 5G technology require close engagements with devices and application developer communities, government agencies and telecom industry. Taxation regime for IoT sensors/devices and connectivity (e.g. SIM TAX, VAT/SD/SC) needs to be reformed to encourage proliferation of IoT applications. Cross-Industry collaboration is required to expedite national ICT projects, such as Smart City/Grid/Education/Health to prepare ground for 5G-based digitalization and automation projects. Also, right and pragmatic policies based on international best practices needs to be put in place for Cloud and Data Centers to cater for the ‘Data Tsunami’ that 5G will fuel.

Security: As 5G networks are expected to become the backbone of many critical national IT applications, such as Smart City, Smart Grids, Healthcare, etc. the integrity and availability of those networks will become major concerns and challenges from national security perspective. Due to its dependencies on devices and applications, risks related to major security flaws may significantly increase. For example, threats deriving from poor firmware and software development processes which make it easier for the hackers to maliciously insert back-doors into products and make them harder to detect. Hence, necessary security and data privacy policies and best practices needs to be in place, such as data encryption, device/software certification, network slicing, etc.

Conclusion

5G is expected to play a key role in an emerging economy of South Asia , improving economic growth, enhancing citizen experiences and creating new business opportunities. The implementation of 5G in South Asia  would be quite different than the rest of the world as, the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region , is leap-frogging from a completely analog to a digital economy bypassing the intermediary steps.

However, significant skepticism exists regarding the investment case of 5G, which needs to be addressed by carefully crafted spectrum, infrastructure, taxation and cloud hosting policies. This can reduce business uncertainties and create an encouraging investment environment for all 5G players, including operators, infrastructure providers, device vendors, developer community, and most importantly, government and business customers.

What is The Difference between 5G and 6G?

What is The Difference between 5G and 6G?

What is 6G? 5G vs 6G, Speed & More

In simple words, 6G is widely believed to be smarter, faster and more efficient than 5G. It promises mobile data speeds 100 times faster than 5G network currently available in limited countries. With speeds of up to 100 times of 100 gigabits per second, 6G is set to be as much as 100 times faster than 5G.

Future Technologies are Closer Than We Think | 6G

While operators are introducing 5G networks , developers have already begun active work on the development and creation of sixth-generation networks, or 6G. In particular, the Huawei announced that it has begun research on 6G — the successor to 5G mobile networks which are not yet widespread, according to its CEO Ren Zhengfei.
He said it’s in an “early phase” and there’s still “10 years to go” before commercialization.

It is now necessary to decide which frequency bands will be used and how they will be licensed by telecom companies. At the same time, the term 6G is still a symbol, because a single definition and even a standard still does not exist.

Tom Wheeler said: “I don’t care what to call it: millimeter waves, 6G or xyz. But we need to start discussions to solve these issues.”

“Nobody Knows How the 6G Standard Will Look Like”

Despite the uncertain standards, this does not mean that there are no real technologies – they already exist. For example, Samsung recently successfully tested wireless networks at about 7.5 Gb / s, which is about 30 times more than LTE, and about a thousand times more than the average fixed broadband user.

One of the main and fundamental differences of 6G technologies is the use of millimeter waves, which allow the use of high-energy frequencies. The use of such frequencies will dramatically increase not only the connection speed, but also the wave propagation range. However, this will increase the permeability of the network – the ability to envelop obstacles and bends of the landscape.

As per experts “Next-generation networks need to be seriously upgraded. How do you meet these requirements? You need to look into the distance. Very, very, far. To infinity and even further.”

It is believed that, theoretically, the 6G standard will increase the speed of wireless communications to 100 times faster than 5G. Currently, the best, fastest fixed fiber optic channels currently have a bandwidth of 100 Gbps. And 5G speeds will allow users to download movies in the Blue-Ray format in a split second. Then think about 6G.

5G standards will have to solve another problem, in addition to increasing speed: in the near future, not only smartphones, tablets and computers will be connected to the Internet; but also cars, household appliances, smart home systems, and much more. Consequently, telecommunications companies will need to significantly increase capacity not only in terms of bandwidth, but also in coverage. Now think about network, application using 6G, that will be 100 times faster than 5G.

According to Huawei, 5G networks will be fully available in 2020 for commercial use.

The process of developing Internet access technologies continues. It seems that recently began running networks 4G standard, the LTE , but experts from the company Huawei has been developing wireless 5G.
There is a possibility that already in 2020 there will be a shortage of network access speed and there will be a need for more modern data transfer technology, which will allow access to the network at speeds up to 10 Gbit / second at any point in the network. Of course, these are the maximum values of the transmission speed (in the incoming channel), in reality, the speeds will have lower values, as with all previous technologies , but the speed will be enough to satisfy any user requests.

5G Network Background

According to the forecasts of specialists from Huawei, which is one of the leaders in the development and production of equipment for organizing wireless networks (both 3G and 4G), the need for a new data transfer technology will arise very soon and by 2020 it is necessary to begin construction of 5G networks to satisfy all subscriber requests.
In the next decade, the number of mobile Internet users will increase many times, in connection with this there will be a lack of bandwidth and the inability to provide quality service, which is why modernization of existing data transfer technologies is necessary.
Today, subscribers of networks of the 3rd and 4th generations have a good or acceptable quality of the service provided . With an increase in the load on base stations, the throughput will noticeably decrease, therefore, it is necessary to expand the capacity or move to a new level, giving subscribers with the same capacities a better service at a higher access speed.
According to the head of the LKT Huawei (Laboratory for Communication Technologies), the entry into the 5G network market will attract many more subscribers to the connection. The emergence of services that require large bandwidth capabilities, such as video communications, which require a high data transfer rate for high-quality image transmission, as well as minimal delay between devices for a greater reality of presence.
5G networks, together with other existing computing technologies, will make the world even more mobile and truly affordable.

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What is 5G? The Ultimate Guide Available on Internet

What is 5G? The Ultimate Guide Available on Internet

Everything You Need to Know About 5G

What is 5G?

Until recently, there were four generations of mobile communications in the world . Currently, operators, with the support of equipment suppliers (vendors), are actively testing the capabilities of fifth-generation networks, whose commercial expansion is expected by 2020. To explain this is quite simple: there is the so-called ten-year rule. If you look a little into the past, you can see that each new generation of mobile communications appeared about 10 years after the previous one: the first generation appeared in the early 80s, the second in the early 90s, the third in the early 00s, the fourth in 2009 year. The conclusion suggests itself that 5G commercial networks will begin to fill the world in 2020.

The fifth generation mobile communication standard (5G) is a new stage in the development of technology, which is designed to expand the possibilities of accessing the Internet through radio access networks.

The standardization of mobile networks of 2, 3, 4 and 5 generations is carried out by a partnership project for standardization of 3rd generation systems (3rd Generation Partnership Project, 3GPP)

In 2017, 3GPP officially announced that 5G will become the official name for the next generation of mobile communications and introduced a new official logo for the communications standard.

The tasks that 5G technology is designed to solve:

  • Mobile traffic growth
  • Increase the number of devices connected to the network
  • Reduction of delays for the implementation of new services
  • Lack of frequency spectrum

5G Network Services

  • Extreme Mobile Broadband (eMBB) – implementation of ultra-wideband communication with the aim of transmitting “heavy” content;
  • Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) – support for the Internet of Things (ultra-narrowband)
  • Ultra-Reliable Low Latency communication (URLLC) – providing a special class of services with very low latencies

It is obvious that in the future much more devices will be connected to the network, most of which will work on the principle of “always online”. At the same time, their low power consumption will be a very important parameter.

5G Network Requirements

  • Network bandwidth up to 20 Gbit / s downlink (ie, to the subscriber); and up to 10 Gb / s in the opposite direction.
  • Support for simultaneous connection of up to 1 million devices / km 2.
  • Reducing the time delay on the radio interface to 0.5 ms (for the services of Ultra-Reliable Inter-Machine Communication URLLC) and up to 4 ms (for services of the Ultra-Wideband Mobile Communication eMBB).

Potential 5G Technology

1) Massive MIMO
MIMO technology means using multiple antennas on transceivers. The technology, successfully applied in fourth-generation networks, will find application in 5G networks. Moreover, if MIMO 2×2 and 4×4 are currently used in networks , then in the future the number of antennas will increase. This technology has two weighty arguments for application at once: 1) the data transfer rate increases almost proportionally to the number of antennas, 2) the signal quality improves when a signal is received by several antennas at the same time due to diversity reception ( Receive Diversity ).

2) Transition to the centimeter and millimeter ranges: Currently, LTE networks operate in frequency ranges below 3.5 GHz. For the full functioning of 5G mobile networks, it is necessary to deploy networks in more free high-frequency ranges. With an increase in the frequency at which information is transmitted, the communication range decreases. This is the law of physics, you can get around it only by increasing the transmitter power, which is limited by sanitary standards. However, it is believed that the base stations of the fifth generation networks will be denser than now, due to the need to create a much larger network capacity. The advantage of the tens of GHz bands is the presence of a large amount of free spectrum.

3) Multi-technology
To provide high-quality service in 5G networks, it is necessary to support both existing standards, such as UMTS , GSM , LTE , and others, for example, Wi-Fi. Base stations using Wi-Fi technology can be used to offload traffic in especially busy places.

4) D2D (Device-to-device)
Device-to-device technology allows devices located close to each other to exchange data directly, without the participation of the 5G network, through the core of which only signal traffic will pass. The advantage of this technology is the ability to transfer data transfer to the unlicensed part of the spectrum, which will further offload the network.

5) The new radio interface in 5G networks and other innovations.

What will 5G mobile networks be?

What will be 5G mobile networks? Technical innovations: virtualization, radio interface, Massive MIMO, Spectrum sharing, New Full Duplex and others

Mobile technology has firmly entered our lives and continues to strengthen its position. Mobile networks are operator networks that provide voice and Internet access on the one hand, and on the other hand a diverse range of gadgets, sensors and smart devices: from smart trackers in the present to smart coffee makers, cars and entire cities in the near future .

According to the rule of 10 years, every decade a generation of mobile communications is replaced . But even one standard within 10 years does not stand still. For example, the fourth generation is classified by LTE , LTE-A ; the WiMAX ; 4,5G and others. If you rely on the rule, there are still about three to four years for 4G dominance . At the same time, information about innovations for 5G networks and testing of pre-5G networks is increasingly appearing . Some vendors and operators receive ambitious statements to deploy them during 2018-2020.

To date, official 5G standards have been formed. Leading players in the global telecommunications market, including Qualcomm, Huawei, Ericsson, Verizon, AT&T, Nokia and others, offer their concepts for future networks by testing their prototypes.

The key feature of each generation, which is announced first of all, is the data transfer rate. However, this is not the only characteristic. Taking into account the development of the Internet of things and, as a result, an increase in the number of connected devices, as well as with an ever-increasing volume of consumed traffic, the following requirements for the fifth generation are defined:

  • Network bandwidth over 10 Gb / s.
  • Support for simultaneous connection of up to 100 million devices / km 2.
  • Data transfer delay no more than 1 ms.
  • The distribution between the various services of the required frequency resource.

Virtualized Architecture 5G

Software-Defined Networks ( SDN ) can become an effective technology that will reduce operator equipment and simplify infrastructure maintenance . SDN promotes the digital transformation of companies and the transfer of services to the cloud. The fundamental principle of Software-Defined Networks is remote control of the network and data transmission devices, i.e. programmatically.

In turn, it is assumed that in the optimization of network functions NVF (Network Functions Virtualization) will virtualize the various functions of many network elements of mobile operators, as well as implement a “network on demand”. Those. data will be processed and stored in a virtual environment (“in the cloud”). The classic equipment will retain the function of transmitting user traffic. This approach to fifth-generation networking meets the trends in wireless connectivity, namely convergence. Convergence involves the integration of isolated network objects into a single computing complex. This is also important for smart devices in order to exchange information online.

To organize a specific part of the network, operators use already developed solutions with a set of necessary parameters and specific equipment. Virtualization of 5G and networks “on demand” will allow you to pre-arrange servers and DATA centers for operators, i.e. will provide a “boxed” solution for them, significantly reducing the time and financial costs of introducing new services.

Regarding the network architecture in the fifth generation there are three “cloud” whales that provide its work.

Access

Access cloud

Control

Cloud management

Forward

Transport cloud

– organization of distributed and centralized technologies

– organization of access systems

– 5G compatibility with 3G and 4G

– session management

– mobility management

– service quality management

– physical data transfer

– ensuring network reliability and speed

– load balancing

Improved radio interface for 5G networks

5G radio interface modelOne of the obstacles to starting 5G is the lack of frequency spectrum. It is assumed that in future networks the resource will expand, including due to the millimeter range. The problem of network coverage and accessibility is supposed to be solved by targeting subscribers, that is, the radio coverage of the network will be adjusted to the needs of subscribers, unlike previous standards.

The efficiency of the fifth generation radio interface will be tripled, i.e. It will skip up to 3 times more data with the same bandwidth. Expected rate: 6 bps at 1 Hz.

For example, as candidates for the title of the 5G radio network interface, Huawei offers the following technical solutions:

1. SCMA (Sparse Code Multiple Access).
This is a low-cost code-based subscriber separation method that does not require delivery confirmation. It works as follows. Before broadcasting over the radio interface, bytes streams of different subscribers from one frequency resource are converted into a codeword using the so-called codebook . The signal recovery at the receiving side is also performed using the codebook.

2. F-OFDM (Flexibel OFDM).
F-OFDM will provide its own set of parameters for each task due to the flexible decomposition into subcarriers, the use of different symbol lengths and the changing value of the cyclic prefix. F-OFDM is an enhanced version of OFDM

3. Polar Code – technology with sub-squared coding complexity.
It is a linear correction code based on the phenomenon of channel polarization.

Polar codes will increase the frequency spectrum by 3 times, allow decoding of linear complexity and significantly increase the data transfer rate.

Related Technologies:A number of other technologies are called upon to create a more perfect and qualitatively different infrastructure of 5G networks. Among them, Massive MIMO, which allows transmitting up to 8 data streams to one subscriber. Massive MIMO is a complex of several antennas that will form very sharp radiation patterns. The multi-beam technology will improve the level of the received signal and eliminate interference from other subscribers, which will positively affect the network bandwidth and the efficiency of using the frequency spectrum.

Bright directions of the concept of the Internet of things are the interaction of M2M (machine-to-machine interaction, Eng. Machine-to-Machine, M2M ) and D2D (device-to-device, Eng. Device to Device ). M2M technology is necessary for the interaction of devices among themselves without the direct participation of a person, i.e. to automate processes. The scope of M2M is quite wide. For example, in payment terminals, security systems, and vehicle coordination systems. Technology reduces the cost of processes, as well as minimizes their dependence on the human factor, and allows you to quickly respond to malfunctioning systems.

Specifications 5G. Comparison of 4G and 5G

  • 5G mobile communication technology has the following characteristics:
  • Increase the peak speed to 20 Gbit / s downlink (i.e. from the base station to the mobile); and up to 10 Gb / s in the opposite direction.
  • The growth of practical speed per subscriber to 100 Mbps or more.
  • Increase in spectral efficiency in 5G networks by 2-5 times. On the downlink: 30 bit / s / Hz, on the uplink – 15 bit / s / Hz.
  • Increasing energy efficiency by 2 orders. This will allow the Internet of Things devices to work without recharging the battery for 10 years;
  • Reducing the time delay on the radio interface to 0.5 ms (for the services of Ultra-Reliable Inter-
  • Machine Communication URLLC) and up to 4 ms (for services of the Ultra-Wideband Mobile Communication eMBB).
  • Increase in speed of subscriber movement up to 500 km / h.
  • Increase in the total number of connected devices to 1 million / km 2 .

5G Services

  • The main services that require the creation of a new generation of mobile communication networks are as follows:
    ultra-wideband mobile communication (enhanced Mobile Broadband, eMBB),
    ultra-reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC),
    mass machine communication (Massive Machine-Type Communications, mMTC).
  • The importance of each of the key 5G capabilities for xMBB, uMTC, and mMTC usage scenarios is given in the book Mobile Communications Toward 6G . The degree of importance is estimated by three approximate indicators: “high”, “medium” and “low”.
  • In scenarios for eMBB, the following are of high importance:

-practical user data transfer rate,

– traffic per unit area,

– peak data rate,

– mobility,

– energy efficiency

– spectrum efficiency.

In some URLLC scenarios, low latency is high to ensure that critical security services work [see ch. 14.7 of the book “ Mobile communications on the way to 6G ”], as well as a high level of mobility in the field of transportation safety services.

MMTC scenarios are characterized by a high density of connections and the need to maintain the correct functioning of a large number of devices on the network. To implement this scenario, the low cost of the device and its energy efficiency are important.

Services in 5G networks can also be classified by the provided content for subscribers:

  • Multimedia services: video in 4K, 8K resolution, 3D-video, online games, services based on holograms and multimedia with the full effect of presence;
  • Cloud services: file storage, government services, business applications;
  • virtual reality services (Virtual Reality, VR);
  • Augmented Reality (AR) services: healthcare, military, education, entertainment;
  • Big Data Intelligent Services in order to improve business efficiency (business intelligence, BI), as well as operation and network management (network intelligence, NI);
  • Internet of Things (IoT) services based on mass connection of devices: energy, transport, healthcare, trade, public safety, industry, housing and communal services.
  • Ultra-low latency services: control of robotic mechanisms, telemedicine, unmanned vehicles, 3D games.

5G Speed

A significant increase in throughput and practical data transfer speed will require a significant expansion and increase in spectrum utilization, as well as an extremely high density of connections, which is unattainable for LTE / LTE-A standards even if they are improved.

Thus, the implementation of fifth-generation networks, especially the increase in data transfer rates, will require a significant increase in the frequency resource. One solution to this problem is frequency refarming – the procedure for replacing the used radio technology with the radio frequencies allocated to the telecommunications operator. For example, in agreement with the regulator, the launch of eNodeB LTE at frequencies allocated to the operator under a 2G or 3G radio network.

This spectrum will not be enough for 5G ultra-fast services, a new spectrum is needed in the bands above 6 GHz. So, at the World Radio Conference in 2019 ( WRC -19), it is planned to allocate additional frequency ranges above 6 GHz for mobile communications.

Fifth generation (5G) mobile networks will be characterized by high speeds (up to 20 Gbit / s downlink and up to 10 Gbit / s uplink).

It is also expected that real speed per subscriber will increase to 100 Mbit / s and more.

The above values ​​of speed increase will be achieved by increasing the spectral efficiency of 5G networks by 2-5 times in comparison with fourth-generation networks. This, in turn, will be available through the use of the following technical solutions:

– Massive MIMO

– Use of the new version of the radio interface New Radio

– Wider bandwidth

5G Frequency Bands

At what frequencies 5G networks will work ? This issue is especially acute, since the implementation of fifth-generation networks, especially increasing data transfer rates, will require a significant increase in the frequency resource. Here are the main approaches.

Frequency Refarming
One solution to this problem is frequency refarming – the procedure for replacing the used radio technology with the radio frequencies allocated to the telecommunications operator. For example, in agreement with the regulator, the launch of eNodeB LTE at frequencies allocated to the operator under a 2G or 3G radio network.

Use of unlicensed frequency bands
Within the framework of 5G networks, it is also planned to actively use unlicensed frequency bands, in particular frequency bands in the 5 GHz band

Using high frequency ranges
Nevertheless, a transition to the region of higher frequencies is considered more promising . The main point when choosing frequency bands at the national level (including use in the Russian Federation) is to ensure the use of 5G networks harmonized with international standards, and for this, accordingly, it is necessary to search at the international level for such frequency bands that would be slightly loaded at the national level level.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) carries out global and regional regulation of the use of private spectrum. In turn, decisions on the allocation of frequencies are made at the World Radio Conference (WRC). At WRC-15, in 2015, it was decided to allocate bands in the range 3.4-3.6 GHz for mobile broadband services, i.e. perspective and for fifth generation networks. However, for 5G ultra-fast services this spectrum will not be enough, a new spectrum is needed in the bands above 6 GHz. So, at the World Radio Conference in 2019 ( WRC -19), it is planned to allocate additional frequency ranges above 6 GHz for mobile communications.

5G networks are expected to use the frequency band from 100 MHz to several GHz. At frequencies up to 40 GHz, the frequency band must be at least 500 MHz. Accordingly, with an increase in the frequency at which data is transmitted, the radius of the cell that the base station can serve decreases. Consequently, fifth-generation networks will be deployed on the basis of Small Cells.

The new frequency ranges proposed for the deployment of 5G systems, as well as the priority of using frequency bands for 5G in the ranges from 10-40.5 GHz and 40.5-100 GHz.

In 5G-NR networks, frequency (FDD) and time (TDD) duplex are used to separate the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) directions, depending on the band used. To improve the radio coverage of networks in high frequency ranges, where the signal from the user terminal is usually limiting in communication range, it is also possible to work with an additional carrier on the uplink (Supplementary Uplink) in a lower frequency range.

In 5G-NR, the maximum permissible bandwidth of one radio channel compared to 4G-LTE networks increased from 20 MHz to 100 MHz for the radio frequency unit FR1. So the width of one radio channel for the FR1 block (depending on the spacing between the subcarriers) can be 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 MHz.

5G Network Standardization
The standardization of mobile networks of 2, 3, 4 and 5 generations is carried out by a partnership project for standardization of 3rd generation systems (3rd Generation Partnership Project, 3GPP.

The initial plan for the preparation of 5G specifications was as follows: the 1st phase of the specifications should be completed before the second half of 2018 (within the framework of Rel’15 3GPP); 2nd phase of specifications – until December 2019 (within the framework of Rel’16 3GPP). But, due to the interest of a number of operators to accelerate the commercialization of 5G systems, 3GPP decided to reduce the standardization time.

So, by the end of 2017, work was completed on creating specifications for the protocols of the first and second levels of the 5G radio interface for high-speed applications (the working name of the New Radio, NR radio interface).

Due to the reduction in standardization time, the 3GPP consortium is forced to reduce the number of options considered and specified.

Release 14 3GPP – Research phase – services, requirements, new radio interface, new architecture.

Release 15 3GPP – Phase 1 – Specifications for the urgent implementation and commercialization of the first use cases

Release 15 3GPP (5G Phase 1) includes the following features:

  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband ( eMBB )
  • Ultra Reliable Ultra Low Latency Communication (URLLC)
  • Bands <52.6 GHz
  • OFDM- based Orthogonal Radio Interface
  • 5G Offline Architecture (NSA) with LTE System
  • EPC Connectivity
  • Standalone architecture with the new 5G core
  • Interaction with the LTE system
  • Separation of management levels and user traffic
  • (CP / UP Split)
  • Network Slicing
  • QoS Procedures
  • Session and Mobility Management
  • Management of service policies, charging,
  • Security features
  • Support IMS , SMS
  • Interaction with non-3GPP networks without trust access (untrusted Non-3GPP)

Release 16 3GPP (5G Phase 2) includes the following features:

  • Interference suppression
  • 5G SON & Big Data
  • 5G MIMO Enhancements
  • 5G location enhancement
  • 5G Power Consumption Improvement
  • Dual Connectivity Enhancements
  • Device capabilities exchange
  • Dynamic and flexible TDD
  • Non-orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)
  • 5G Vehicle to X (V2X)
  • 5G Industrial Internet of Things ( IIoT )
  • Integration of access and transport channels
  • (Integrated Access and Backhaul)
  • 5G operation in the unlicensed frequency spectrum
  • 5G satellite domain
  • 5G above 52.6 GHz

Thus, Release 16 3GPP will increase the efficiency of 5G networks and expand the application of fifth-generation technologies.

5G For People and For Devices?

Every 10 years, mobile technologies take a revolutionary step into the future, opening up new services and opportunities for people. And now the next 10 years expire. The fifth generation (5G) mobile communications network is next in turn. What will they give users and telecom operators?

Throughout its history, mobile networks have undergone significant changes, and they continue to this day. The transmission technologies, the list of services provided to subscribers, etc. are changing and modernizing. In order to fix the most important transformations, the concept of “generation” (“G” – Generation) was introduced.

According to the “ten years” rule, each new generation of mobile communications appears in 10 years. Those. a kind of “mobile revolution” is taking place.

5G (5th Generation – fifth generation) is the official name of the mobile communications standard following the standards of previous generations. This is a new stage in the development of technology, which is designed to expand the possibilities of accessing the Internet through radio access networks.

The relevance of launching 5G networks.
We list the key trends in the mobile industry today:

  • Mobile Internet access has become more important and more demanded than fixed;
  • Growth forecast for “mobile traffic” – 5 times in 6 years.
  • Existing opportunities to increase the capacity of networks at times and maintain a high level of quality of service are practically exhausted.

5G networks will represent a combination of new and existing radio interfaces and will mark the creation of a unified wireless infrastructure providing the widest range of services. The introduction of new and the use of existing services will serve as a driver for a significant increase in traffic in mobile networks.

The main factors for increasing traffic should include:

  • Growth in the consumption of video services and an increase in the resolution of video images: by 2024, video will account for 74% of mobile traffic;
  • An increase in the number of devices (starting with smartphones and tablets, ending with numerous sensors of the class of Internet of Things (Internet of Things, IoT);
  • Increase the pace of application use;
  • Increase in popularity of cloud technologies – models of online storage of subscriber data on numerous servers distributed on the Internet;
  • Online games and their updates.

Market Expectations from 5G

More than a quarter of users (26%) expect 5G networks to have higher speeds compared to previous generation networks (Fig. 3). Then, with 13%, there are expectations that 5G networks will:

  • Have improved network coverage inside and outside buildings;
  • Faster Wi-Fi;
  • Cheaper.

5G network requirements

The main technical requirements for 5G networks are

ParameterValue
Peak data rate20 Gbit / s (to the subscriber); 100 Mbps – 1 Gbps (from the subscriber)
Practical speed per subscriber100 Mbps – 1 Gbps
Spectral efficiency

2-5x (increase  in 2-5 times in comparison with LTE-Advanced )

Subscriber Mobility

Up to 500 km / h

Energy efficiency

100x ( 100x  magnification  over LTE-Advanced )

Time delay in the radio interface

Up to 0.5 ms (for URLLC)  and up to 4 ms (for mMTC)

  
  
Traffic density≥ 10 Mbps / sq.m
Number of active user terminals≥1 million sq. Km
ParameterDefinition
Peak data rateThe maximum achievable data transfer rate in ideal conditions to one subscriber terminal (in Gbit / s)
Practical speed per subscriberAchievable data transfer rate, which is available to the subscriber / device throughout the coverage area (in Mbit / s or Gbit / s)
Spectral efficiencyAverage data throughput per unit of spectrum resource and per cell (bit / s / Hz)
Energy efficiencyIt is determined by two aspects:
1) on the network side – by the number of information bits transmitted / received from the subscriber per unit of energy consumption in the radio access network (in bit / J);
2) on the side of the subscriber terminal, energy efficiency is determined by the number of information bits per unit of energy consumption by the communication module (in bit / J)
Time delay in the radio interfaceContribution of the radio network to the time interval from the moment the data packet is sent by the source until it is received by the recipient (in ms)
Subscriber MobilityThe maximum speed (in km / h) that can be achieved with a given quality of service (QoS) and continuity of control transfer between radio nodes, which may belong to different levels and / or radio access technologies
Traffic densityThe total speed of traffic served per unit of geographic area (in Mbps / sq. M)
Number of active user terminalsThe total number of connected or available subscriber terminals per unit area (per sq. Km)

Key Services in 5G networks
The fifth generation mobile communication networks should provide support for a variety of services that can be combined into three main basic services:

  1. Ultra-wideband mobile communication (Extreme Mobile Broadband, eMBB);
  2. Mass machine communication (Massive Machine-Type Communications, mMTC);
  3. Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC).

The latter two are especially important in the context of the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT).

The importance of the key features of 5G networks
The degree of importance of each of the key 5G features for eMBB, URLLC, and mMTC usage scenarios. The degree of importance is estimated by three approximate indicators: “high”, “medium” and “low”.

For eMBB class services, the following are of primary importance:

  • Practical user data rate;
  • Traffic per unit area;
  • Peak data rate
  • Mobility;
  • Energy efficiency;
  • Spectrum utilization efficiency.

URLLC services are characterized by.

  • Low latency for mission critical security services.
  • High level of mobility (in the field of transportation safety services).

For mMTC services, the following are of high importance:

  • High density of compounds;
  • The need to maintain the correct functioning of a large number of devices on the network.

To implement this class of services, the low cost of the device and its energy efficiency are important.

Services in 5G networks can also be classified by the provided content for subscribers:

  • Multimedia services: video in 4K, 8K resolution, 3D-video, online games, services based on holograms and multimedia with the full effect of presence;
  • Cloud services: file storages, business applications;
    virtual reality services (Virtual Reality, VR);
  • Augmented Reality (AR) services: healthcare, military, education, entertainment;
  • Intellectual services based on Big Data in order to increase business efficiency (business intelligence, BI), as well as operation and network management (network intelligence, NI);
  • Internet of Things (IoT) services based on mass connection of devices: energy, transport, healthcare, trade, public safety, industry, housing and communal services;
  • Ultra-low latency services: control of robotic mechanisms, tele-medicine, unmanned vehicles, 3D games.

The latency and bandwidth requirements of 5G networks, depending on the type of service.

5G Network Health Concerns:

Regarding exposure to radio waves WHO has already standards which are being strictly followed by Mobile operators while designing wireless network products that both transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) energy as per WHO compliance.5G mobile radio access technologies must comply with established national and international standards and regulations on RF exposure.

The following WHO statements apply to mobile and wireless network technologies implemented by Nokia:


• WHO’s Fact Sheet 304 extracts:
“From all evidence accumulated so far, no adverse short- or long-term health effects have been shown
to occur from the RF signals produced by base stations.”
“Considering the very low exposure levels and research results collected to date, there is no convincing
scientific evidence that the weak radio frequency signals from base stations and wireless networks
cause adverse health effects.”


http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs304/en/

• WHO’s Fact Sheet 193 extract: “A large number of studies have been performed over the last two
decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk. To date, no adverse health
effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use.”

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/

 

5G Network Test Result

The first commercial pilot launches of fifth-generation networks are planned in 2018 as part of the World Cup. Not only federal, but also foreign mobile operators and manufacturers of telecommunication equipment are taking part in their development.

One of the leaders on the development of 5G is Huawei. The company tests prototypes of networks both independently and in partnership with other interested participants. Besides

5G is being implemented by Huawei, Sumsung, Qualcomm and others. In Russia, among the federal operators are MTS and MegaFon

Nevertheless, it is early to expect the introduction of full-fledged 5G networks in the near future, despite many tests. Operators are exploring the capabilities of next-generation networks and making marketing announcements. But standardizing structures have yet to resolve many formal issues. Priority is the specification of the standard by 3GPP and the allocation of frequencies for new networks. Undoubtedly, the experimental achievements of operators will accelerate this process and will contribute to the implementation of 5G networks as they are expected: high-speed, environmentally friendly, reliable, convergent and universally available.

Cutting Edge Technologies That Will Change Marketing Industry Forever

Cutting Edge Technologies That Will Change Marketing Industry Forever

It is difficult to imagine a marketing field that modern technologies would not significantly change. Companies that rely on artificial intelligence, virtual reality and voice search, gain an advantage over competitors and let them create future promotions with extra ordinary results.

We have listes 10 leading marketing technologies and the possibility of their application in companies of various sizes. Which of them will you choose to transform your strategy?

10 Cutting Edge Technologies Changing Internet Marketing

1. Big data

• Improves the quality of customer data collection for fine-tuning advertising campaigns.
• Helps evaluate campaign performance.
• In the near future, big data will allow creating attribution models to assess the impact of each channel on conversion rates, customize programmatic ads and optimize video marketing.

2. Artificial Intelligence

• Finds valuable patterns for more effective targeting and prediction of consumer behavior.
• Used by search engines to analyze queries and select the appropriate content.
• Based on artificial intelligence, platforms for online chat are created that help to automatically collect customer information and solve problems on demand.
• AI-based technologies deeply analyze trends, create detailed customer profiles, and help develop successful personalization strategies for better customer focus.

3. Machine Learning ( ML )

• It is used in audience segmentation and is embedded in analytics systems to track anomalies and analyze large volumes of data in real time.
• Robots have learned to create content. Banner advertising, email campaigns, posts on social networks are generated in different formats for different channels. After analyzing enough data, machines can create and change headers to increase efficiency.

4. Bots

• Not only an effective tool for communication, but also a channel for round-the-clock interaction with the brand.
• Often used in sales and support, help find and recommend products.
• Soon they will be able to remind of repeated purchases through voice assistants.
• Communication with the chat bot can occur on several devices, be omnichannel.

5. Voice Search

• Marketers use voice search to collect information about device users through search queries, keywords, applications, or voice dialing.
• Soon, voice search will be integrated with SEO. Marketers need to learn how to optimize content for conversational queries.
• The technology has every chance to change the approach to advertising on the search and organic promotion of content.

6. Virtual and Augmented Reality

• Both technologies create an impressive experience that affects feelings and emotions.
• They expand the experience of product testing, brand engagement, and shopping.
• They bring offline stores and ecommerce closer, gradually blurring the line between real and virtual interaction.
• Can be used for storytelling and creating interactive brand content.

7. Internet of things ( IoT ) and wearable devices

• Used to collect information about users: their habits or preferences. The more connected devices a person uses, the more marketers have more opportunities to contact him with an actual offer.
• Wearable devices transmit information on the biological state of consumers to the Internet.
• Biometric data can be used to analyze consumer interactions with the brand.

8. Blockchain

• Using blockchain technology, marketers can motivate consumers to view ads and interact with content.
• Decentralized applications based on blockchain technology can compete with Apple and Android platforms and support a new cooperative economy around the world.

9. Beacons

• Gathers detailed information about the visitor to optimize the shopping experience and helps create personalized campaigns based on movement data.
• Ecommerce companies can use localization to target potential customers within a certain radius of the sensors.
• Combines online and offline presence and provides a consistent experience.
• It helps to determine which campaigns attract attention and show only relevant ads to each client.

10. 5G

• A faster connection allows you to load pages faster, reduce bounce rates, and increase CTR and ROI.
• Enhances display capabilities using VR and AR for an engaging demonstration of offers.
• Allows marketers to collect data in real time to optimize campaigns and local promotion.
These technologies significantly affect marketing and business, including:

• Data collection
• Data analysis
• Content Creation
• Content distribution
• Personalization
• Targeting and placement
• Customer service

Over All Digital or Internet Marketing is going to have huge exponential positive impact with the deployment of these amazing latest technologies.

Technology is evolving and becoming more accessible. Changing the industry under the influence of technology is happening now, you need to have time to master promising areas.

Scientists Warn of Health Risks From 5G

Scientists Warn of Health Risks From 5G

5G Health Risks:International Appeal Calls for a 5G Moratorium

International scientists and physicians warn against the health risks of the 5G mobile communications standard and demand a moratorium. They call for technology review, setting new, safe “maximum overall exposure limit” limits for all wireless communications, and expanding wired digital telecommunications.

” Scientists warn of potentially serious health effects of 5G cellular technology “

More than 180 signatory scientists and physicians of 36 countries, recommend a moratorium on the expansion of the fifth generation of telecommunications until potential risks to human health and the environment have been fully explored by industry-independent scientists. 5G will greatly increase exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) by adding it to GSM, UMTS, LTE, WLAN, etc. already used for telecommunications. It has been proven that HF-EMF is harmful to humans and the environment.5G leads to a massive increase in forced exposure through wireless communication.

The 5G technology works only over short distances. Due to solid material, the signals are transmitted poorly. Many new antennas will be needed, and the full rollout will result in antennas in urban areas spaced from 10 to 12 homes. Therefore, the forced exposure is greatly increased.

With “the ever-increasing use of wireless technologies,” nobody can avoid an exposure. In addition to the increased number of 5G base stations (even within homes, shops and hospitals), “10 to 20 billion wireless connections” (from refrigerators, washing machines, surveillance cameras, self-driving cars and buses, etc.) are part of the Internet of Things be. All this together can lead to an exponential increase in the total long-term exposure of all EU citizens to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).

Harmful effects of HF-EMF have already been proven Over 230 scientists from more than 40 countries have expressed their “serious concern” regarding the ubiquitous and increasing exposure to electromagnetic fields from electrical and wireless devices, even before the addition of 5G. They refer to the fact that “numerous recent scientific publications have shown that electromagnetic fields affect living organisms, even at intensities well below most international and national limits.” The effects include increased cancer risk, cell stress, an increase in harmful free radicals, genetic damage, structural and functional changes in the reproductive system, learning and memory deficits, neurological disorders, as well as adverse effects on general well-being in humans. Damage does not just affect humans. There are increasing ones Evidence of adverse effects in plants and animals .

After the scientist’s appeal was written in 2015, additional research has confirmed the serious health risks associated with RF EMF from wireless technology. The (US $ 25-million) National Toxicology Program (NTP) study , the largest in the world, shows a statistically significant increase in the incidence of brain and heart cancer in animals exposed to electromagnetic fields below the ICNIRP. Limit values (ICNIRP, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). These limits apply in most countries. These results support the findings in human epidemiological studies to high-frequency radiation and the brain tumor risk. A large number of peer-reviewed scientific reports show damage to human health from electromagnetic fields.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the World Health Organization (WHO) cancer research agency, concluded in 2011 that electromagnetic fields of frequencies ranging from 30 KHz to 300 GHz may be carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). However, new studies, such as the NTP study mentioned above, as well as several epidemiological studies, such as the most recent studies on cell phone use and brain cancer risks, confirm that radio frequency radiation is carcinogenic to humans.

The EUROPAEM EMF guideline 2016 states that “There is strong evidence that long-term exposure to certain EMFs is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer’s and male infertility. Common symptoms of EHS include headache, difficulty concentrating, sleep disorders, depression, lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms. “
An increasing proportion of Europe’s population is affected by the disease symptoms that have been associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields by wireless techniques in the scientific literature for many years. The International Scientific Declaration on EHS & Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS),Brussels 2015 states: “In light of our current scientific knowledge, we underline that all national and international bodies and organizations … recognize EHS and MCS as actual medical conditions. They have the role of guardian diseases. In the coming years, there could be far-reaching public health problems. This applies to all countries in which wireless technologies based on electromagnetic fields as well as marketed chemical substances are used without restrictions. … Inaction leads to costs for society and is no longer an option. We unanimously acknowledge this grave threat to public health.

Precautionary Measures

 

The precautionary principle (UNESCO) was adopted by the EU in 2005 : “If human activities can cause morally unacceptable damage that is scientifically plausible but uncertain, action must be taken to prevent or reduce that damage.”

The Resolution 1815 (Council of Europe, 2011): “Take all reasonable measures to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields, in particular to high frequency waves from mobile phones, and in particular exposure of children and young people for whom the risk of brain tumors is greatest seems to be. … The Assembly strongly recommends that the ALARA (ALARA) principle be applied as low as reasonably achievable. Both the so-called thermal effects and the athermal (non-thermal) or biological effects of electromagnetic emissions or radiation must be taken into account “. In addition, (point 8.5) “the standards and the quality of the risk assessment must be improved”.

The Nuremberg Codex (1949) applies to all experiments on humans. It therefore includes the expansion of 5G with new, stronger exposure to RF-EMF. For all such experiments: “The trial shall be so planned and based on results of animal experiments and scientific knowledge about the disease or the research problem that the expected results will justify the conduct of the experiment. … No attempt may be made if it can be assumed from the outset that it will lead to death or permanent harm. “(Nürnberger Kodex, points 3-5). Previous published scientific studies show that “it can be assumed from the outset” that there are real health risks.

The European Environment Agency (EEA) warns against “radiation risks from everyday equipment”, although the radiation is below the WHO / ICNIRP limits . The EEA also concludes: “There are many examples where the precautionary principle has not been used in the past and where there have been serious and often irreversible damage to health and the environment. … harmful exposures can be widespread before there is both “convincing” evidence of damage from long-term exposure, as well as a biological understanding [mechanism] of how this damage is caused. “
“Safety guidelines” protect the industry – not the health The current ICNIRP “Security Guidelines” are outdated. All documented damages mentioned above occur even though the radiation is below the ICNIRP “Safety Guidelines”. That’s why new safety standards are required.

The reason for the misleading guidelines is due to the conflict of interest of the ICNIRP members due to their relationship with telecommunications or electricity companies. This undermines the impartiality that should guide the establishment of public exposure standards to non-ionizing radiation. … To assess cancer risks, it is necessary to include scientists with expertise in medicine, especially oncology. “The current ICNIRP / WHO guidelines for electromagnetic fields are based on the outdated hypothesis that” the critical effect of exposure to HF-EMF, which is relevant to human health and safety, in the heating of exposed tissue“However, scientists have proven that many different types of diseases and injuries have been caused without heating (” non-thermal effects “) at radiation intensities well below the ICNIRP limits.

 

We strongly suggest to the EU:

 

1) Take all reasonable measures to stop the propagation of 5G high frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) until independent scientists can ensure that for EU citizens 5G and the total radiation intensities produced by RF-EMF (5G with GSM, UMTS, LTE and WLAN) are not harmful, especially for infants, children and pregnant women as well as for the environment.
2) To recommend that all EU countries, and in particular their radiation protection authorities, comply with resolution 1815 and educate their citizens, including teachers and physicians, about health risks from RF EMF radiation and how and why wireless communication should be avoided, in particular in / on / near day care centers, schools, housing, workplaces, hospitals and aged care facilities.
3) Immediately, without industry interference, appoint an EU working group of independent, genuinely impartial scientists on EMF and health without conflict of interest, to assess health risks and:
a) To decide on new, safe “maximum total exposure limits” for all wireless communication within the EU.
b) To explore the total and cumulative exposure that affects EU citizens.
c) to draw up rules that are required / enforced within the EU to determine how to prevent the new “maximum total exposure limits” in the EU being exceeded. This applies to all types of electromagnetic fields to protect citizens, especially infants, children and pregnant women.
4) To prevent the wireless communications / telecommunications industry, via its lobby organizations, from persuading EU officials to make decisions in Europe on further distribution of high-frequency radiation, including 5G.
5) To prefer and expand wired digital telecommunications.

Millimeter wave health effects:

Release 163GPP (5G Phase 2) includes enhanced features like 5G above 52.6Ghz band.Frequencies in the range between 30 and 300 GHz is called mmwave or millimeter wave. If 5G Network uses The millimeter wave (mmWave) bands between 30 and 300 GHz offer massive amounts of raw bandwidth to enable multi-Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) wireless data rates.Thus, the main safety concern is heating of the eyes and skin caused by the absorption of mmWave energy in the human body.

Beamforming 5G – Mobile Radio With Pinpoint Accuracy

Beamforming 5G – Mobile Radio With Pinpoint Accuracy

Time has come for mobile operators to use beamforming and achieve even better performance in mobile communications.

In beamfroming, an active antenna emits 64 signals in parallel, all of which are individually controlled and aligned to customers.

Beaming – that’s what some of us know. Legendary sentence from the science fiction series: “Beam me up, Scotty!”

But while it is still not possible to beam people or objects like the USS Enterprise, the word “beam” actually leads the way in terms of beamforming. Because these targeted mobile radio beams are one of the most important technologies of the future 5G network. This technique is very fascinating.

What is Beamforming?

Nobody can answer this question better than Sebastian Gunreben, the 5G Integration Manager at Deutsche Telekom. He explains: “Beamforming is the next step to MIMO .”
As a reminder: In 4×4 MIMO, a kind of Quattro drive for the mobile network, provide four transmit antennas on the mast and four receiving antennas in the terminal for about 60 percent faster surfing. From the previous maximum LTE speed of 300 megabits per second (Mbps) are so to the 480 Mbit/s.
Beamforming takes up this principle, but increases it again by a factor of 16! Because here an active antenna emits 64 signals in parallel, which can all be individually controlled and aligned to customers. “These are 64 reception and transmission elements to form 64 different beams.
Instead of broadcasting a mobile radio signal in a circle, which then becomes weaker and weaker in the edge area, the signals can be aligned in beamforming, i.e in the “shaping of beams”, in the form of elongated lobes. With this beam, the signal is then similar in the edge area of the cell as in the center.

However, the antennas do not move. “The beam is formed by a phase shift of the signal and multipath propagation – the antenna itself remains static.” The beams are fully automatic, so that the transmission power can be adjusted as needed and ensures optimal coverage for each user.

What is Beamforming?

In the new technology, no telecom employee sits under the antenna to direct the beams at the individual customers. Because that happens fully automatically. The transmission power is adjusted as needed and provides optimal coverage for each individual user.
Anyone who calls on the phone and only has a small amount of resources is also covered by the appropriate beam as a customer who is currently streaming a video with a high data rate. Result: Mobile communications, tailor-made as needed. And the horizontal and vertical orientation of the new active antennas also increases the coverage – especially in urban areas with tall buildings. Incidentally, beamforming is also used in WLAN.

How fast is 5G beamforming?

So far, the new technology is not running outside in “wild”, but in the lab. “There, of course, we have perfect conditions and get several gigabits per second,” reveals 5G specialists.
In reality, the Beams are making sure we get close to these lab values, and there will always be a point where we can achieve similar data rates become.” Deutsche Telekom’s customers can therefore look forward to real gigabit mobile communications.

What happens if there are more than 64 users in a cell?

Beamforming 5g

One of the most important principles of beamforming: “The 64 lobes or beams are not aimed at a single user, but ultimately form locally a club. That is, it can quite within a beam several customers are served – and depending on what you request for network resources. “

A good example is a tourist group standing in front of Eiffel Tower and taking selfies. Their members are all captured and cared for by the same beam. But who uploads his photos via 5G on Instagram, needs and receives a higher performance and data rate than the tourist colleague next door, who only calls home.

This is the crucial difference between a passive mobile phone antenna and the new beamforming.

“The antenna performance remains more or less the same when compared to a conventional antenna, but the previous antenna always transmits with the same power, 24 With beamforming, I can virtually call up this performance only when there really is a need in this cell. “

Is gigabit speed the main advantage of beamforming?

Speed is one thing. But the higher network coverage through the new technology even more important. Because: “With a static antenna, we have a certain propagation field, so if we are at the edge of the network, it may be that we can not get high data rates anymore or that the service per user does not work.”

The active antenna, on the other hand, “sees” when a user is at the edge of the network – and specifically directs a beam at him. “That’s why we suddenly no longer at the edge of the net, but within a beam.” This gives customers higher data rates, and the services work.

Beamforming Advantages and Disadvantages:

So here are benefits of beamforming:

  1. The main principle of this technology is the biggest advantage and that is boosting the power of beams in the desired direction to serve the farthest subscribers in a best way by reaching them to telecom cell towers or base stations. This increases supporting capacity of a cellular tower in terms of number of subscribers.
  2. The RF signal can overcome noisy and attenuating channel environment due to the increase of C/N ratio of the signal in 5G beamforming. This increases coverage capacity of the cell tower or base station.
  3. Owning to its immunity against fading and interference it is widely used with MIMO in latest wireless technologies viz. Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e), LTE, LTE-Advanced, 5G etc.

There are also shortcomings or disadvantages of Beamforming

  1. In this set up multiple RF antennas are used so making hardware complexity higher.
  2. The beamforming system is based on advanced high processing DSP chips so more power consumption is required.
  3. Because of above mentioned reason, cost of beamforming system gets higher compare to non-beamforming system.