5 Ways the IoT Can Change the Business World

5 Ways the IoT Can Change the Business World

Internet of Things has started transforming businesses in 2020

The use of cutting edge technologies like AI,IoT and 5G in the business world is no more different.IoT devices going to work in close connection framework to each other and will be controlled to improve efficiency, which in turn has direct impact on the productivity of the business. More work can be done in less time.IoT devices record and transfer data to monitor important processes, give us new insights, boost efficiency, and allow companies to make more informed decisions.The increment in productivity and efficiency will increase your profits significantly.

Here are possibilities of the near future Internet of Things (IoT). This information is based on a survey of 3000 executives in 12 countries and on the company’s own IoT expertise, as well as feedback from customers and partners.

– The Internet of Things has gone from being a buzzword to becoming a part of everyday life any future-oriented business must relate to. It’s too late to ask if IoT, or the Internet of Things, has value. In 2019, the question must be how we can make the most of it. This is exactly why we enlisted the IOT 2020 business impact.

This is what the energy specialist believes are the five most important possibilities of the future IoT:

5 Ways Today’s IoT Will Affect Your Business

1.Mobile Employees

With tomorrow’s IoT, we get a new digital wave that just connects things (Things) using the Internet. This makes us more mobile and more digital than ever. The digital wave is accelerating interconnected sensors at lower prices, artificial intelligence devices, faster networks, cloud services and increased capacity for advanced data analysis. With the new wave, the farmer does not have to be in the barn to check if the cow is satisfied.

2.Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty

IoT enables us to take advantage of unused data sources to enhance the customer experience. Although many companies are thinking about efficiency and lower costs when considering the value of IoT, access to huge amounts of data and the ability to retrieve real-time information is perhaps most important. IoT can provide even better customer service and new opportunities for customer satisfaction and loyalty. Who would not like a customer center that has the solution ready the moment we get through the telephone queue?

3. Combines Security and Flexibility

An open, compatible and hybrid way of working is the basis for tomorrow’s IoT. It requires collaboration on global cyber security standards. In addition, cloud-based IoT will grow, both in popularity and in diversity, across systems. When IoT solutions become available to most people, the solutions will be tailored to both security needs and tasks to be solved. With a little luck we can adapt the safety to the job and not the other way around.

4. New Sources of Revenue and New Business Models

Just as innovation and development have been driven by the industrial revolution, the mobile phone and the internet, IoT will lead to new ways of making money and new business models. Schneider Electric’s Energy Operations software and Building Analytics are two good examples of IoT used in property management. Thanks to grid-connected sensors combined with analysis software and assistance from the company’s energy advisers, operators can now be immediately notified of system failures and intervene immediately before causing downtime or energy loss. The data stream from the plants is aggregated into monthly reports that point out specific efficiency measures. The system has been used by NTNU, among others, at Campus Gløshaugen in Trondheim with excellent results.

Companies, cities and especially developing countries will benefit from IoT solutions, as these solutions are freer and do not have to comply with traditional laws and regulations. According to the consulting firm McKinsey, today’s developing countries account for as much as 40 percent of the market for IoT solutions.

5. Helps the Environment

IoT solutions help to address some of our greatest challenges, namely global warming and pollution. In fact, Schneider Electric’s report shows that expectations for IoT are highest when it comes to the effect on climate and the environment. Both public and private sectors are using IoT solutions in the fight against global warming. For example, the University Hospital in Northern Norway has automated Europe’s largest patient hotel and delivers world-class energy efficiency. Read more about it here .

Still unused potential

Even now in 2019, IoT is delivering great value results. Still, according to the energy company, there is great potential for more. According to Schneider Electric, IoT solutions are the most useful in these four areas:

1. Maximize energy efficiency and sustainability through smarter systems and faster decision making. Gigantic Excel sheets are now being replaced by real-time mobile control.

2. Optimized machine and system use as a result of good monitoring and analysis. For example, with critical material and temperature measurement sensors, you can find weaknesses and avoid downtime.

3. Smart, productive and profitable operation through cuts in use of time and resources. Real-time analytics allow you to customize your operations or production as needed from time to time.

4. Mobile monitoring and reduced risk due to simulation and digitalisation. With today’s IoT solutions, you can check the factory’s machinery on the cellphone on the couch and be on the alert when the accident happens.

What risks do IoT security issues pose to businesses ?

The threats of the future will be more targeted and that new technology will make it easier.
Must increase focus on IT security among SMEs


As the security of large companies has improved, the attacks will increasingly come against smaller companies. It is not only useful to secure the big ones – everyone must be safer, if the country is to become safer, Dficlub concludes.

More targeted attacks

We believes the threats of the future will be more targeted and that new technology will make it easier to attack smaller companies.


Everyone is finding the starting point for the digital transformation and the road to mature production in the IoT age. Terms like Smart Manufacturing, Industry 4.0, Digital Transformation and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are no more getting more practical and applications based: We are bombarded by new concepts and hyper that remind us daily of the rapidly changing world of manufacturers.

Everyone can find an excuse to ignore them, but you can be sure this is not a hype. The world is changing faster than ever, and manufacturers can’t afford to be left behind.

Research based firms has studied the industrial software market for several years, and researchers interviewed hundreds of industrial players. There is a common theme that goes back; – To get started, one must find the starting point for the digital transformation. Results shows how production management systems (MOMs) can be a low-risk and effective starting point for companies that see production as a key part of the digital transformation.

MOM; The concept shows how production and operations management can use business organization and management concepts in the production of goods and services. But a big challenge that IoT based industries are going to face is security.

– If you look at blackmail via email, this is a sign that the attacks are being targeted. The attacks are based on the company’s internal resources and can, for example, attach previously used usernames and passwords to make the attack feel more personal.

Bjarte Malmedal was in the first person that received a master’s degree in information security at the Gjøvik University College. After his studies, he worked for over 20 years with security management and operational cyber security in the Armed Forces, and was instrumental in establishing and leading the defense cybersecurity center. The environment was one of the first to work systematically with operational information security in Norway, says Malmedal, who currently works as chief consultant for Experis Cybersecurity.

Security culture and the human factor

– It was a major cultural shift to move from the defense’s operational and technical security efforts to focus on the human factor. The project at NorSIS was to provide a systematic overview of what has been done in the field of security culture in Norway, and was one of the first of its kind in the world. It was therefore a highlight to present the report to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), a UN body for global standardization in telecommunications, he says.

Malmedal was also responsible for reports on safety culture in the energy and water supply sectors, as well as for the youth segment. The project has now collected data for over four years and provides the basis for analyzing trends and changes over time.

Must secure the entire value chain

He says that many are concerned about security culture, but lack a clear picture of what it actually means.

– In case of data breaches, companies often blame poor security culture, but when you ask what it actually is, they get an answer. One must therefore break the term down to attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. The report is a guide to identify how the situation is in your own organization.

As editor of the government’s new national IT security strategy, which was presented in January, he looked at how the situation is in business, and especially for small and medium-sized businesses.

– Previously, SMEs were not considered important in terms of security. The idea was that something much worse is happening with, for example, Hydro, but the development of the digital economy has led the major players to depend on the security of the subcontractors. If you look at the latest major security incidents, the attacks often come via subcontractors, and today it is understood that the security of the major players is entirely dependent on the security of the small players, he says.

Must lift the small businesses

He points to a comprehensive lack of IT security expertise among small and medium-sized businesses.

– Smaller companies do not have the money to hire their own people to work with security, but must focus on the core business. If a small business goes to the major security players, they are often offered comprehensive and costly solutions. It is difficult for small businesses to find good security solutions, and we therefore want to help small businesses reach a reasonable level of security.

He refers to a survey conducted by Experis this fall, in which 300 business executives in SMEs were asked about IT security.

– Nine out of ten business executives consider IT security an important one, but only half responded that they had sufficient expertise internally. The general attitude is that IT security is important, but the ability to do something about it is not present.

This is How Phone Phishing Scams Try To Fool You

This is How Phone Phishing Scams Try To Fool You

Mobile and Internet Security How to Defend Against Attackers

Telephone fraud is definitely not a new phenomenon, but the methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated. We have talked to an expert on how to avoid being fooled.

Mobile operators have their own large security environment that blocks hundreds of thousands of scams every year. As per security advisers and investigators of those firms.

– There is definitely no lack of ingenuity in the fraud industry. In order for the scam business to be profitable over time, they still have to adapt their methods. The attacks are continuously adjusted to the level of knowledge of the potential victims, while the scammers try to circumvent the technical security measures of the telecommunications operators.

The latter is far more difficult than manipulating people, so scam success is largely about how attentive we are when the scammer tries.

It may therefore be wise to know how the scammers operate.

The three most common scams – right now:


1. Local numbers enter into confidence

While we have gradually become more vigilant when calling from unknown, foreign numbers, the threshold is significantly lower when it comes to numbers starting with local country code.

During the summer, the security department of mobile companies registered that fraudsters have begun to imitate local numbers, with both nine and ten digits according to the country code.


In a busy day, you may not notice how many digits there are in the number. It starts with normal mobile number, so it’s safe to answer…

They receive daily inquiries from customers who report suspicious experiences with phone calls, text messages and emails from people pretending to be someone else. This is called “spoofing”.

– The scammers have started to abuse and spoof specific country phone numbers to a greater extent when they contact that country residents, both real and constructed numbers.

If your number gets spoofed, it is important to know that neither your mobile nor your number has been hacked. The scammers use software that allows them to pretend to call from a number that is not theirs. It also makes it very difficult to reveal the fraud to the person being contacted – before responding.

– It costs nothing to answer, but the potential for loss lies in what happens afterwards. Then the scammers will gladly try to clear you of personal information and card details.

Expert’s advice:


If you find that someone has misused your number – contact your mobile provider so they can often help you. by blocking foreign calls from your number. But it also means that you cannot call from abroad to your country, e.g. when on vacation. The vast majority of smartphones can also block numbers that are bothersome or unwanted. If you do not recognize the local number that is calling you – spend a few seconds looking at the number of digits before answering.

2. “Microsoft Scams”

This is a classic example of “phishing”, where the scammer “fishes” your personal information. By accessing your PC, the scammer tries to get you to download malware, pay for viruses you don’t need – and get both card numbers and login details for, for example, online banking.


Mobile operators daily prevent and handle fraud attempts.

Here are tips:

– If you experience or suspect fraud attempts via calls or SMS, you can notify your mobile operator.They have the opportunity to block unwanted international calls before being forwarded to specific mobile subscriptions.

Expert’s advice:


Neither Microsoft nor any other operating system vendor will contact you to request software downloads or provide sensitive information in this way. Therefore, in order to reveal this fraudulent method, it is important that as many people as possible know how it works. Knowledge is the most effective defense!

3. Interrupted calls pique curiosity

Have you ever been called from an unknown foreign phone number that only lets it ring once or twice before it goes silent? Then you may have been exposed to a scam called “wangiri”. It is Japanese and means that the call ends after just a ringtone.

The point is that you should not be able to answer, but be sufficiently curious to call back. It is only when you call back that the scam starts – the number you call back is an international high-tariff number with a high minute price.

As many as 10% who receive a “wangiri” call actually call back the missed call, so this is a very simple and profitable form of fraud.

– The international scammer uses a so-called call generator to call several thousand daily subscribers at once. Remember that the taximeter starts even if you do not hear someone answer at the other end, and it can be expensive in some cases, warns by security expert.

Expert’s advice:


Be aware of which numbers you call back. If you do not recognize the number, or do not expect to receive a call from the country in question, you should not call back – no matter how curious you are.

You can’t stop all the threats yourself
The difference between scams and other types of digital threats is that you can often prevent the scams yourself, while you need help to stop or limit everything else that can happen.

Therefore mobile operators offers a number of security services that make the digital life safer. One of these is Secure ID, a fraud prevention service that helps you in the event of ID theft. You will be notified immediately on your mobile if your personal data is being misplaced and will be assisted in case of any abuse.

A safer everyday life with Secure ID:


Have you ever worried about your personal data being abused or disseminated by others? If you have a Safe ID, you will receive notifications as soon as we find your personal information in error, and you will be assisted by abuse.

Secure ID means extra security for you – and the family!


How does Secure ID work?
Secure ID consists of three elements: ID monitoring, ID theft insurance and Internet erasure. Note that ID theft insurance starts automatically when ordering, while ID monitoring must be activated by registering at least one e-mail address. To make use of Web Delete, you must first create a case.

ID monitoring
The first step in reducing the risk of ID theft is ID monitoring. Most people use their email addresses as usernames on multiple websites. With ID monitoring, you are notified if secure ID system find your email address and login details in an unsafe place on the web. To be notified, you must first register which email addresses to monitor.

You can register up to 5 email addresses
The email addresses are registered and must be verified via email
When the emails are registered you will be notified if the email (often username / password) is for sale or misused online

ID theft insurance
Assures you help if you have been exposed to ID theft, so you get legal assistance and financial compensation for abuse and fraud. You also get help if someone has created a false profile with your information.

The ID theft insurance covers yourself, spouse / cohabitant and all children under the age of 20 living at the same address.

BrainBashers
With Online Delete, you get help removing unwanted content online. This applies to both things that are written about you and private images in the balance. You get legal assistance and a contact person who takes on the job of deleting photos and comments for you. You will also receive financial compensation if you need psychologist assistance and loss of salary income.

How to prevent data from spreading online

By using ID monitoring and responding to any alerts you receive, you can quickly respond and reduce the risk of someone misusing your data if it is spread on the Internet.
You are probably registered with several services on the internet, where you use your email address to log in. There may be security breaches in these services that cause your information to be disseminated online. If the ID monitoring finds security breaches, this may mean that your information is being misused by unauthorized persons.

Useful tips and advice – some simple precautions to follow online

  • Use different passwords on different services and change passwords frequently
  • Never share your personal data
  • Never email bank / credit card details
  • Never shop at online stores that do not have secure payment
  • Lock your mailbox if possible
  • Do not click links in emails from unknown senders, enter the address yourself in browser
  • Keep track of transactions in your bank account
  • Delete content on your mobile, PC or Mac before discarding or delivering it
  • Be careful
5 Reasons Why 5G is The Future

5 Reasons Why 5G is The Future

5 Reasons to Look Forward to 5G

The next generation mobile network is more than “just” crazy speeds …

We are approaching a society where everything and everyone is connected through the internet – at tremendous speeds, thanks to the 5G network.

Many mobile operators recently opened 5G pilots in limited areas , and are thus well on track before next year’s large-scale rollout of the super network of the future.

And there are several reasons to rejoice. Here are five of them …

1. Huge speeds
That being said, first of all: 5G will offer incredible speeds.

– Year after year, data usage is growing by between 50 and 100 percent. 5G will enable much more data to be transported than today’s 4G network, and is therefore far more mature to cope with our increasingly advanced data usage.

According to recent 5G test results , we will notice this especially when streaming or using entertainment services:

– Playing on 5G will go like a dream, with speeds at the level of fiber.

The fact that there is hardly any latency to talk about in the 5G network is also something that will delight many online players.

2. Ski-sharing networks
Networked slices are different networks built on top of the underlying mobile network. In practice, this will mean that, for example, health services, industrial areas and zones for autonomous vehicles will each have their own customized network – but on the same mobile network.

– 5G will be so good that companies can have their own data connection configurations tailored to the individual business. The mobile network no longer becomes “one size fits all”.

3. Guaranteed quality of service
With 5G, it is possible to offer guaranteed service quality, or Quality of Service (QoS).

For example, many players, including Telenor, are working to facilitate self-driving, autonomous vehicles. When these roll out on Norwegian roads, it is crucial that they always have a secure, stable and fast connection through the mobile network.

– Imagine a surgeon performing a remote operation using a robot. It will require extremely fast response time from the network, but with 5G this will be possible.

In short, the time it takes for large amounts of data to be sent back and forth in the 5G network will be close to zero, which opens up an enormous number of opportunities that depend on real-time data – something that is not possible today over the 4G network .


4. “IoT” – everything is connected to everything
You may have heard the term before? The Internet of Things, or the Internet of Industry Things, has been talked about for a while now. It is simple to imagine that billions of devices, sensors, machines and things are connected to the Internet at any given time.

Admittedly, this is also being rolled out in today’s 4G network, but the 5G network will have the capacity to handle even more devices.

– Every Sunday when I cook in the oven, I think how nice it would be to be able to sit on the sofa and control the temperature in the oven and have a complete overview of the cooking.

With the 5G network we will see that more and more things are connected to the network, which can give us a more efficient and comfortable everyday life.


5. Full use of VR and AR

Because of the huge amount of data virtual reality equipment requires, many believe that 5G will be able to bring out the full potential of the technology – as data can be sent back and forth between the screens and a real-time server. The same applies to so-called augmented reality (shortened to “AR”).

VR includes technology that closes the outside world and lets you unfold in an artificial reality. With AR you can add digital elements to the reality we actually live.

The popular game Pokémon Go is perhaps the best known example of AR technology. As the technology advances, for example, you can get traffic info in a corner of the windshield as you drive home from work, and you and the pod can build complicated Minecraft structures in the park using their own set of AR glasses.

– Many people have the belief that glasses that can do different things will become a reality.


You must know these 5G terminologies:

Network Slicing: The mobile network can be divided into separate networks that work independently of one another

QoS: “Quality of Service”, security against outages, errors and delays

IoT: “Internet of Things”, billions of devices are connected to the web

VR: “Virtual Reality”, technology that encloses the user in an artificial reality

AR: Augmented Reality — augmented reality, adds digital elements to the real world

IoMT:”Internet of Medical Things”, billions of medical related devices are connected to the web

IoIT:”Internet of Industrial Things”, billions of industry devices are connected to the web

why 5g is the future
Evolution of 5G in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)

Evolution of 5G in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)

Role of 5G in Medical Health: First Test Case

Norway’s first private individual, who works in the Emergency Medical Center (AMK) Inland, to connect to a 5G mobile network. He knows that good coverage can mean life or death.This is Europe’s first use case of 5g applications in healthcare.

He has truly experienced the importance of a functioning 5G mobile network.He has tried everything a mobile can do and clearly notices the difference from LTE mobile network.

“I notice that there is better sound and much faster network. Whether I’m streaming movies or sending video clips.”

As per him every day we notice how important it is to have a proper network, when there are people who need help and need to notify.With a functioning 5G network you can send ECG measurements of patients to HQ hospitals faster, you can film car wrecks to get an impression of the extent of damage after a traffic accident.
And it can be easier to find people who have lost their way in the mountains, he said.

This is just a start of evolution of 5G in internet of medical things (IoMT).

This is 5G

The hyper-connected community of revolutionary technology on 5G is soon a reality. It means a huge number of things connected to the web, high speeds, minimal delays, increased reliability and brand new possibilities for using the web.

What is 5G?

We have been developing mobile networks with new generations about every ten years since analogue NMT (1G) came in 1981, 2G in 1992, 3G in 2001 and 4G in 2010. Around 2020 comes 5G.

5G will provide us with two main types of communication solutions: The first provides us with a higher capacity mobile broadband network and enhanced user experiences. The second major type provides a 5G network that will enable special networking solutions for many different purposes with different functionality requirements. It will be designed for billions of things connected to the web, for very fast response times, and for increased security and reliability.

The big difference between the 5G network and previous generations is that 5G is designed to provide networks and services to various industrial and community-driven equipment units, as well as services and networks for the smartphone.

How would you like to experience 5G?

In addition to mobile broadband, 5G will be offered as fixed broadband access to households and businesses in areas without fiber networks. It will also be arranged for broadcasting of radio and TV. The emergency services will have their own safe and effective solutions for emergency situations, including for coordination of communication with audio, video, maps, positioning, first aid, drone management etc. Companies, government agencies and households will be able to create their own “private” networks of sensors and machines that can be controlled and controlled via the network. Vehicles will be connected and combined for safer and more efficient traffic management. In the health sector, 5G could be used for telemedicine to diagnose and treat patients where they are. In the energy sector, 5G can be used to measure and control production, distribution and consumption in more environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways. In the food industry, 5G will enable more efficient and environmentally friendly production and distribution with the use of sensors that monitor and quality assure the entire food chain from sea, field and barge to the dinner table.

5G is expected to be a driver in the digital transformation of the ICT community of the future, for example, with sensor and communication solutions for smart cities, autonomous transport solutions and emergency networks. Individuals will experience new and improved digital services on their smartphone delivered over 5G. These services will be much faster, more accessible and more secure than today’s services. Individuals will also benefit from sensor and communication solutions for smart cities, autonomous transport solutions and emergency networks. Other 5G services will utilize the available speed and enhanced security for the transmission of virtual or customized reality, such as to “ambulance hospitals” or “firefighter support systems”.

When will 5G be available?

From the start, 5G will be gradually built on top of the 4G network. 5G technology is standardized in two phases, in 2018 and 2019 with international approval in 2020/21, but it is difficult to determine when 5G becomes widely available.

5G is under development and piloted in Europe, Asia and the USA starts with pilots for testing among other things. self-driving buses in 2018. During the Olympics in South Korea it was tested, among other things. 360-degree TV services and 5G-based robots. Commercial development is expected to start in 2020 as needed, but it will not be a massive rollout as we have seen for 3G and 4G. In the coming years, international research and innovation within 5G will focus on the evaluation of 5G.

The KPIs (“key performance indicators”) and piloting of solutions for different applications in different industries.

What is unique about 5G?

5G will come with a host of new and unique features, compared to the 4G network we have become. Three important examples of areas that will benefit from 5G, so-called industrial verticals, are autonomous transport solutions, the energy sector and the media industry. One conceivable transport solution may be the interconnection of cars (“platooning”) with communication between the cars and from the cars to the network which require extremely low delay and strong robustness. This will allow cars and traffic signals to be synchronized for optimum driving speed and density of cars in all conditions.

For the energy sector, however, a massive IoT system with large amounts of sensors that constantly provide new information and data for monitoring, control and big data analysis can be critical.

In the media world, consumers may want to have access to a 5G network at extreme speeds, enabling high quality streaming in real time, preferably with an AR experience as well.

In particular, five features of 5G offer great potential for new applications, helping to propel the hyper-connected community and enable much of the revolutionary technology we hear about otherwise:

Ski-divided network

5G enables operation of a more flexible and programmable network. This is possible through the use of new technology for logical or network slices. Various logical networks will be created on top of this extremely flexible infrastructure, and will deliver as different networking infrastructure as the application requires. In practice, this means that it will be experienced as services with very different needs, such as health services, industrial areas and zones for autonomous vehicles, each having their own network, within the same network – tailored to their needs, and without the expense of each other.

Robustness and Quality

Guarantees This disc sharing also offers guaranteed quality of service (QoS) for various industries, services and uses – which is especially important for critical functions (such as health and emergency services, transport and industrial production), and also makes it safer to become more digital. It ensures a robustness in the network, which enables zero-tolerance services for failures, errors and delays, to use Internet-based services and systems in a whole new way.

Extremely low delays

5G will offer much lower delays in the network than before, some estimate down to 1 ms. In a 4G network, the delay is about 25 ms. As mentioned above, this will be especially important for self-driving cars – which can then communicate for both safer and more efficient transport, when a car knows that the car in front brakes in what it does, it is both secured against a potential collision and can Avoid queuing during synchronized movements. In health, too, low delays can be considered essential, for example with the use of remote-controlled robotic surgery – which you do not want to have any delays, but have near perfect response time from machine and patient in one hospital, to the doctor who controls the operation from a another hospital. 5G offers ultra reliability in these delays, uRLLC (ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication),

Massive machine type communication (mMTC)

Possibility of massive volumes of things connected to the network 5G technology will also make it possible to have a large number of things connected to the network, known as massive machine type communication (mMTC).
We already see that most people have a smartphone, but the great growth of connections is sensors, machines and things connected to the internet – the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). These things also have very different needs: some will exchange tiny amounts of data and ensure long battery life (like a parking sensor buried in the tarmac), while others, like a self-driving car, have plenty of power, but will transfer large amounts of data to cloud. In order for all the technology that is now expected to be implemented within the broad IoT concept, one must have a network that can handle such massive volumes of things on the same network. It offers 5G, which enables one million connected things on the same network, per square kilometer.

High speeds

The least radically different from 4G to 5G, but noteworthy, is the evolution in the speed of the network we will be able to offer. This is not only necessary to meet the strong growth in data traffic in the web that we already see, where more and more content requires large amounts of data. An example here is whether more and more people should stream 4K quality video. It also means that completely new uses are emerging. For example, far more advanced functions and operations can be done in the “cloud” because data is transmitted quickly in the network and does not need to be stored or processed locally. This allows mobile devices to become more advanced and do more demanding things than we have been used to. The big speeds will also be a driver for faster development in the so-called augmented reality,

Some of these features may also be fully or partially incorporated into the constantly evolving 4G network (so-called 4.5G). This means that they will be available even where no 5G coverage will be available, but you will still rely on 4G. Therefore, there is a constant development of the 4G network as well, which will help drive the digitization of society. 5G will enable entirely new uses for the technologies we already have, and will be needed to make use of the technologies we expect will come. The practical consequence of this is that if we are going to be able to take advantage of all the opportunities that new technology gives us, we rely on a better digital infrastructure than the one we have today. That’s why 5G is about far more than just creating a new network,

From one G to another

We are now approaching the fifth generation of mobile networks. Evenly, it can be said that there has been a change about every ten years. Why? Because each “G” in a sense experiences an expiration date. Not as a food, which you know is going to be bad – but, rather, we see that technology in society is evolving in a way that the network is unable to keep up with serving. For example, 3G opened for mobile data, but was not adapted to the revolution that led to the iPhone’s entry in 2007 for data traffic and applications for mobile phones. It was 4G as a dedicated computer network, which made the smartphones shine. The shifts are not driven by needs alone, but also by what can be offered. Networking technology is constantly improving. Then new standards are needed.

Thus, for a G is not a single technological solution, but a standard consisting of a number of technologies, which describe how good a network should be and how it should be built – among other things.

The dynamics are so simple: We need more and we can offer more. It’s the same thing that drives the race against 5G.

The Technology of The Year 2020 Will Be 5G

The Technology of The Year 2020 Will Be 5G

5G TECHNOLOGY: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND NEW CHALLENGES

What 5G technology can do ? What can we do with 5G Technology ? Why do we need 5G Network ?

Well these are the most asked queries we receive from around the world. Let’s see how game changing cutting edge technology, 5G , going to change our life in 2020 onward. 

Even after LTE progress does not stand still: people demand high speed internet access, and thanks to IoT, more and more equipment “wants” to connect to the global network. How to solve both problems at once?

From time to time, the media really delights with news of the upcoming 5G era. Clients are bribed by the claimed high speed access. Next Generation Mobile Networking Alliance (NGMN – an association of mobile operators, suppliers, manufacturers and research institutes) defines the following requirements:

  • The data transfer speed is tens of Mbps for tens of thousands of users at the same time.
  • Data transfer rate of 100 Mbps in megacities.
  • The data transfer rate of 1 Gb / s at the same time for many users on the same floor.
  • Connect hundreds of thousands of wireless sensors simultaneously.
  • Higher spectral efficiency compared to 4G.
  • Coverage Improvement.
  • Improving signal transmission efficiency.
  • Significantly lower latency compared to LTE.
  • The frequency spectrum approved by the FCC on July 14, 2016 includes frequencies of 28 GHz, 37 GHz and 39 GHz.

It is worth noting that 5G exists only in the form of the 15th release of specifications and in periodic performance tests, for example, as in Japan.

Japan Tests 5G:
Japanese mobile operator NTT docomo has built a 5G network capable of broadcasting 8K video for VR glasses.

Many of us are just starting to master the 4K image, but technology continues to evolve and 8K resolution will be next for large screens. For reference: the screen in 8K resolution in terms of the number of pixels is equal to four screens in 4K resolution (8192 × 5120, aspect ratio 16:10, 41.9 Megapixels).

The broadcast system allows you to broadcast high-resolution VR content from anywhere using 5G networks. The solution consists of an 8K 3D camera with the ability to record 360 degree video, a Yamaha spherical 3D microphone with 64 audio channels, several data processing servers and a 5G base station. Note that the 3D camera broadcasts 9 videos in 4K at the same time. It is proposed to use Oculus Quest as client equipment.

To achieve this goal, taking into account the requirements for processing video and audio streams, as well as taking into account the bandwidth capabilities, NTT Docomo used a new 8K video encoder with 60FPS to limit the load.

Several real-time data processing servers convert 9 video streams of 4K 3D cameras into 2 streams with 8K resolution in 3D format with a 360-degree panorama. Another server converts 64 sound channels of a 3D microphone into 36 channels of 3D sound. Then all this is compressed and synchronized for streaming over 5G.

Virtual reality technology is only developing. Long development is determined not only by high requirements to the hardware, but also by the massiveness of the devices themselves. In such conditions, it’s difficult to talk about mobility, because no one wants to be “chained” to a PC with wires or constantly be in search of a great Wi-Fi signal.

UK 5G Public Testing
Great news from Vodafone. Manchester Airport launched a public access test using 5G technology. Specially for these purposes, the telecom operator placed a portable Gigacube router (Figure 2) using Massive MIMO technology in the airport terminal. Its characteristic feature is the use of multi-element digital antenna arrays. In simple terms, user terminals will always be much smaller than base station antennas.

Vodafone also uses a 5G Blast Pod . Using Wi-Fi allows visitors to get an idea of ​​5G using existing devices. Users are given free admission to the NOW TV service. As an example, it is proposed to download an episode from the recent Tin stars series in 45 seconds, and the entire series in about 6 minutes. On a 4G network, this would take more than 26 minutes.

Vodafone plans to expand to other major airports and train stations across the UK.

US 5G Prospects and Promises
T-Mobile in their blog declare the fight against Cable monopoly and claim that they will be able to create an alternative to the classic broadband access even in rural areas.

The motivation for this is the FCC report, which says that 28.9% of urban private homes and 61.1% of private homes in rural areas are connected to only one service provider or do not have access to the Internet at all. There is no need to talk about high-speed access. The report details that 45% of private houses in cities and 76% of private houses in rural areas do not have high-speed access or services are provided by only one operator.

According to the business plan, by 2024 T-Mobile is going to connect more than 9.5 million subscribers to the broadband access services using 5G means.

In the near future, the company plans to begin installing 4G wireless routers operating in the LTE T-Mobile network. Under this pilot project, called Home Internet, users get the T-Mobile In Home router for free. The user’s task is simple: unpack the equipment and plug it into the network. In the future, it implies upgrading the router to 2.5 GHz in the frequency spectrum and the ability to work in 5G networks.

What about 5G in Russia?
Russia is also undergoing tests. According to the information , in April 2017, MTS conducted a series of tests at the Otkritie Arena stadium in Moscow. The base station, operating in the range of 14.5-15.3 GHz, transmitted a signal to a moving prototype smartphone at speeds up to 25 Gbit / s. The achieved speed allows you to download an hour-long movie in HD-quality in less than 3 seconds.

Two months later, Megafon together with Huawei updated the speed record, reaching the limit of 35 Gb / s. At their forum booth, the companies showed in action a 5G base station with TDD mode in the frequency range of 70 GHz (E-Band) with a bandwidth of 2 GHz.

Competition
After the publication of the bandwidth test results, the Internet community began an active discussion of the 5G competition with the “wired” broadband and Wi-Fi operators. A user will ask: “Why do I need wires when wireless access is several times faster?”

Technical experts from various organizations in their conversations on relevant Internet forums give counter-arguments:

The frequencies used in the air, channel width, the number of clients impose their own restrictions on the operation of wireless base stations, especially in TDD mode.
Radio is a common medium, and it gives no guarantees for speed or performance, unlike fiber optic or copper cable.
Cells of telecom operators also require the creation of radio links for communication with data centers and among themselves.
LTE is already delivering speeds of more than 100 megabits / s, and mass outflow is not observed.
There are not so many routers for LTE distribution. Configuring the “modem + wireless router” bundle is too complicated for most users.

Specialists in the field of radio engineering emphasize that these speed records were achieved at high frequencies of 15 and 70 GHz, while the cellular network operates in the ranges from 453 to 2690 MHz. As a result, modern client mobile devices will not be able to work in 5G networks at the declared speeds. And what about telecom operators? Need to free satellite frequency bands. 

Hardware Replacement
Telecommunications operators will be forced to make large-scale changes in the structure of their networks. To achieve the stated speeds on the cell towers, it will be necessary to replace the base stations and antennas, as well as PPC (equipment of radio bridges between the towers). It is expected that additional masts of cellular communications will be installed.

The most ambitious and costly changes will occur within the network of operators. The usual infrastructure of the mobile operator, shown in Figure 3, will soon become obsolete, and it will be replaced by a new one.

It is understood that the core of the network will require updating of elements such as BRAS , DPI , billing, CG-NAT , DNS and DHCP servers. There are several reasons:

Previously declared access speeds;
introduction of a dual stack of IPv4 and IPv6, once promised support for the Internet of things.
It should be noted that a change in the order of identification is expected. The so-called 5G Subscription Permanent Identifie (according to the concept ) will absorb IMEI and be supplemented with new network identifiers like a MAC address. The old IMEI will be replaced by PEI (Permanent Equipment Identifier) ​​- a permanent equipment identifier.

Conclusion
5G networks and virtual reality technologies open up new possibilities in various types of activities, whether it’s video games, broadcasting concerts and sports programs, medical operations and much more. If for a 5G subscriber these are solid advantages, for telecom operators there are new problems and tasks that can already be started to be solved by replacing the equipment and software of data networks.

IoT Security Threats and How to Handle Them

IoT Security Threats and How to Handle Them

What are the biggest IoT security risks and challenges

High-speed 5G mobile networks not only connect people more efficiently, but also enhance the interconnection and control of machines, objects and devices. High data rates, low latency, and high capacity are good for both consumers and businesses. But as one company that introduced 5G early experiences, these benefits also carry new, significant security risks.

Global home electronics manufacturer Whirlpool has already begun building 5G at one of its plants. The company still uses IoT devices for predictive maintenance, environmental control, and process monitoring over its existing local area Wi-Fi network, but the introduction of 5G will enable autonomous forklifts and other vehicles not possible with Wi-Fi.

“The plant is heavily metal,” said Douglas Barnes, Whirlpool’s North American IT and OT manufacturing infrastructure application manager. WiFi is reflected in the metal. I built a mesh Wi-Fi in the factory, but I can’t help but have too much metal.5G passes through walls and is not reflected by metal. ”

“When 5G is deployed at the plant, Whirlpool will see a breakthrough,” he says. “We will be able to introduce true autonomous vehicles across the facility, covering everything from maintenance and delivery to manufacturing operations.” This business case is significant and can provide significant cost savings. The 5G rewards are great. ”

Vans said the test has already been completed to verify the normal operation of the autonomous vehicle. The budget will be allocated starting this month, and vehicles will be based on 5G by the end of the year. “If the results are good, the autonomous vehicle business case will work everywhere else,” Vans said.

Vans is well aware of the cybersecurity issues already occurring in the enterprise and the extent to which all these issues will amplify as the transition to 5G moves. Whirlpool worked with 5G partner AT & T to address the concerns. “I wrestle with security issues every day.” “Before we started, the first thing we talked with AT & T was how to build a secure network.”

The following are seven key areas that companies such as Whirlpool should consider when developing a 5G implementation plan for IoT.

1. 5G Network Traffic Encryption and Protection.

With 5G, the amount of traffic flowing through these networks increases dramatically with the number of intelligent devices connected to the network. According to Gartner, the number of enterprise and vehicle IoT devices will reach 5.8 billion, up 21 percent next year, from 4.8 billion, the expected number of IoT endpoints this year. For attackers, this means a much richer network of targets than it is today.

According to Vans, Whirlpool will configure the 5G antenna to encrypt all 5G traffic and accept only authorized traffic to address this issue. “When we add a device, we configure it as an acceptable device in 5G,” said Barnes. It does not receive traffic from devices that are not included in the whitelist. In addition, the traffic is encrypted, so don’t worry. “If someone picks up the signal, there is very little that can be done.”

Vans said that when traffic leaves the local network and is sent over public 5G or the Internet, the content is protected via a secure VPN tunnel, “we’ve done this in advance in case we need to communicate with the outside using 5G.”

2. Protect and Isolate Vulnerable Devices:

The next potential weakness is the device itself. Vans said, “There is a weak security awareness throughout the industry.” In particular, industrial equipment uses its own operating system and often does not have the ability to install patches, or patches are often prohibited under licenses. “It’s not designed with patches in mind,” Vans said.

Jonathan Tanner, senior security researcher at Barracuda Networks, said that the vast majority of IoT security mistakes haven’t been fixed, and some devices have problems that cannot be fixed by a firmware update, or that there is no mechanism to update the firmware. Even if device manufacturers add security to the next generation of devices, the older, unsafe devices will still be used.

Tanner disregards this and ignores security researchers who point out vulnerabilities. “There are cases where companies that make vulnerable devices go out of business. In this case, the vulnerable device is left untouched. ”

What should companies do with insecure IoT devices? Whirlpool’s Vans said using network isolation along with other network security technologies could help. Barnes said, “The whirlpool uses a two-tiered approach. The first layer is network security, which monitors all traffic, and the second layer is protocol-based security, looking for malicious activity embedded in the protocol through deep packet inspection. ”

In addition, general security hygiene applies, such as patching immediately above this layer, regular security audits for all devices, and inventorying all devices on the network.

3. Prepare for Larger DDoS attacks

In general, 5G is not less secure than previous generation wireless technologies. Kevin McNami, head of the Nokia Threat Intelligence Lab, said, “5G brings new security features that aren’t actually available in 4G or 3G. In 5G, the entire control plane is transferred to a Web services type of environment, which is strongly authenticated and very secure. “

This improvement is offset by increased opportunities for botnets,” McNami said. “In 5G, the bandwidth available to devices is significantly increased. As bandwidth increases, IoT bots will increase.” This bandwidth will of course increase. ”The

increased bandwidth can be used to find more vulnerable devices and spread the infection, increasing the number of vulnerable devices that the botnet can find. As Whirlpool says, companies use IoT devices a lot, as do other types of organizations, including government agencies, and

when 5G is deployed, they will be able to deploy the device in remote, difficult-to-maintain locations. Interest in the Oregon Wireless Internet Service Providers Union “A lot of sensors record everything from weather to air quality to video feeds,” says co-chairman Cameron Camp. “There’s a lot of new machines that are likely to be hacked and botnetized.” It will be difficult to find and respond to hacks. ”

IoT devices are also typically used for a long time. The user does not have to replace the device that performs the desired function well. Attackers prefer a stealthy approach in order not to draw attention. Even if a patch is released or a manufacturer releases a more secure version of the device, it’s useless if the customer doesn’t want to change it.

Many smart IoT devices, on the other hand, run a comprehensive operating system, such as embedded Linux, allowing them to behave almost like normal computers. It is therefore possible to use infected devices to host illegal content, malware, command control data and other useful systems and services for attackers. Users don’t consider these devices to be computers that need antivirus, patches, or updates. Many IoT devices do not keep logs for inbound and outbound traffic. It’s even harder to get rid of botnets because attackers can stay active without being caught.

Eventually, all three threats increase: the number of devices that can be exploited, the bandwidth available for botnet proliferation, and the bandwidth available for devices to launch DDoS attacks. Many devices are still unprotected and some cannot be patched at all, so in a 5G environment, companies must be prepared for a much larger DDoS attack than they are today.

4. Switching to IPv6 May Replace Private Internet Addresses with Public Addresses
As the number of devices increase and communication speeds improve, companies may want to use IPv6 instead of IPv4, which is now commonly used. IPv6, with longer IP addresses, has become an Internet standard since 2017.

The maximum number of available addresses for IPv4 addresses is 4.3 billion, which is not enough. Some registrars have faced address shortages since 2011 and organizations have begun their transition to IPv6 in 2012. But according to data from The Internet Society, less than 30 percent of current Google users access the Google platform via IPv6.

Nokia’s McNami said that many organizations, and nearly all home devices and many cell phone networks, use private IPv4 addresses instead of IPv6, “private IPv4 addresses are not exposed to the Internet, providing natural protection from attacks.”

As the world moves to 5G, carriers will have to switch to IPv6 to support billions of new devices. But if the carrier chooses a public IPv6 address rather than private, the device is exposed to the Internet. McNami said this isn’t an issue with IPv6 or 5G, but it could lead to a situation where companies that switch devices from IPv4 to IPv6 inadvertently leave them in the public address space.

5. Increased Attack Surface due to Edge Computing:


There is a growing interest in edge computing among customers or companies looking to reduce latency and improve performance for their distributed infrastructure. When 5G is deployed, the communication capabilities of endpoint devices are enhanced, further increasing the benefits of edge computing.

At the same time, edge computing also dramatically increases the potential attack surface. Companies that have not yet started their transition to zero-trust network architecture should look at this architecture before investing heavily in edge computing infrastructure. If you actually build a zero-trust network architecture, security should be treated as the most important consideration, not as a follow-up.

6. New IoT Companies Focus on Preoccupation, Not Security:


When the IoT gold rush begins, new players will enter the market and existing ones will launch new devices ahead of time. Barracuda’s Tanner says there are more IoT devices than security researchers already looking for vulnerabilities, and that new manufacturers will add new cycles of security mistakes.

Tanner notes that as the same mistake continues to occur, the number of vulnerabilities reported on IoT devices is not decreasing, but increasing. “There is not enough learning from events in other companies in the industry.”

“The company doesn’t care about security,” says Joe Coates, who focuses on corporate network intrusions, leading penetration testing at A-lign Compliance and Security. Earlier this year, I bought five devices related to the ability to turn the lights on and off, and I could access four of them outside the home. The test mode embedded in the device was released by the vendor without being removed. ”

Cortes said all companies want to enter the market first. Many companies use ready platforms such as embedded Linux to get devices to market as quickly as possible. Cortes said, “I recently got IoT malware that can bring a device down with seven lines of code.” Cortes said that manufacturers who do not tighten their devices are vulnerable.

For example, an attacker could use this malware to shut down a plant or critical infrastructure, or to hold a company’s system hostage and demand a ransom. “That’s not happening yet,” Cortes said. “5G is not widely deployed.” As 5G adoption increases and IoT increases, it is likely that exploitation of industrial systems, such as the manufacturing industry, will increase significantly. ”

7. Everyone is Responsible for IoT security:


The biggest obstacle to IoT security is psychological obstacles, not technology. Nobody wants to take responsibility. Everyone wants to pass on to someone else. The buyer accuses the vendor of not making the device secure. Vendors blame buyers for finding cheap, insecure products. Avoiding responsibility for IoT security in the 5G world leads to even greater wave lengths.

In a last year’s Radware survey, 34 percent of respondents said that the responsibility for IoT security rests with their device manufacturers, 11 percent with service providers, 21 percent with individual consumers, and 35 percent with business organizations. Mike O’Malley, vice president of strategy at Radware, said: “In other words, there is no consensus.” O’Malley also said that consumers have no knowledge or skills. Companies do not hire enough people. Manufacturers are so numerous and different that they are difficult to control.

Companies can hire service providers to take some of the responsibility off, but that doesn’t solve the problem of unprotected consumer devices, passive manufacturers in change, and the absence of consistent global regulations and enforcement.

Everyone should be responsible for IoT security. Buyers should ensure that their products do not use a default password or test mode, that communications are encrypted and authenticated, and that devices are regularly patched and updated. Vendors should stop selling unprotected devices and consider security at the start of the product design process, rather than adding features later.

Artificial Intelligence in Telecom – From Hype to Reality – AI

Artificial Intelligence in Telecom – From Hype to Reality – AI

Surprising Ways Telecom Companies Use Artificial Intelligence

AI is having enough hype through media, researchers and vendors. Innovative organizations are putting a lot of efforts in AI research to make full benefits of it.

We all know about Sophia a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong based company Hanson Robotics. She looks quite human like and has been in talk shows a lot. She has also been given citizen ship in Saudi Arabia as being first artificial intelligence based human robot. She is being consider as intelligent but in reality, she is thoughtless whose intelligence is very basic. She can read a manuscript, on stage can perform a speech and she can answer questions that are pre-programmed. But If we ask her question out of script she can’t answer. Why is it so? Why is the gap here?

Well there is a basic difference of implementation AI.

Artificial General Intelligence

Machines that almost same level of intelligence that humans have, are expected in AGI products. This is what we all are expecting.

Artificial Narrow Intelligence

Machines have ability to perform specific tasks extremely well. These are computers that are trained to do simple and basic level of tasks only more efficiently than that of humans. This ANI based products are more in utilization by industry now.  i.e a machine that is trained to identify objects in images

A computer that can identify brain tumor cannot detect tiger in a picture because it has not been trained on that.

And certainly that’s the kind of AI, organizations like Telecom operators are trying to implement.5G  , IoT and big data will be handled by Narrow AI models to perform small task efficiently and fast.

Operators can train AI models such that, input from big data and after processing give expected results about customers. Mobile operators are also training the network based on alarms to predict whether there will be a failure or not. We just need to in put this data to AI model to learn and give out put as per desired results. It will also learn the relationship that if a new related input is given then it can predict the answer.  Similarly a new customer is added then machine will learn that client will churn or not.

This is very basic application of AI today in mobile telecom industry.

One more interesting and quite effective application of AI in telecom is dynamic carrier allocation.

 Artificial Narrow Intelligence trained model can add or remove additional carrier based on learning from previous weeks trends using capacity. No more manual allocation and wastage of resources.

Another example of machine learning using AI is

Automatize Customer Care:

Machines are trained to identify patterns in the text and predict problems for better solution offers.  

This is pure automation, quick and competent customer support application.

Challenges:

Challenges that mobile operators are facing at the moment is, they are not having enough samples of issues to predict more accurately.Only those queries are addressed well where model is having high volume data.

These are very concrete examples that are being used in Telecom companies today.We are seeing that AI will be a part of all domains in near future to automate tasks and improve productivity whether in Network, Customer care, Marketing, HR or Finance etc.

How to Adapt AI in Mobile industry:

First of all companies need to upgrade the technology stakes, upgrade the infrastructure and competence to work with AI. Especially need to fix the first mile and last mile of AI.

1st mile means data readiness. To be able to collect, store, process to make available the data for training AI models.

Last mile is infrastructure on which AI based models work and utilization of predictions from AI models to operations.

So deploying AI in Telecom sector effectively, mobile operators needs to work on refine enough big data and then focus on applying outputs in business operations.

Key barriers that must be solved and must have things for AI readiness:

  • Agile data Access Processes.
  • Experimental platform with the right tool.
  • Culture for experimentation and failing.  
  • Domain and AI expert collaboration / cross function operational model
5G in South Asia: Opportunities & Challenges

5G in South Asia: Opportunities & Challenges

Imagine 5G in South Asia, 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world.

Just a year after introducing 4G, the telecom sector in South Asia is turning its attention to move on to the era of 5G. While the gap between these two successive generations of mobile technologies seem quite narrow, 5G’s over-arching impact beyond voice and data has made it a must-have tool to keep South Asia  relevant in the 4th Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0).

Unlike the earlier generations, 5G can bring more than an incremental change for an emerging economy of South Asia . Its underlying architecture has the potential to enable the next wave of productivity and innovation across the subcontinent – thanks to its gigabit speeds, improved network performance and reliability.

However, some of the most talked 5G uses-cases like autonomous vehicles and robotic surgery might not be applicable in context of South Asia. This is because, such futuristic use-cases requires advanced market structure and availability of digital and supporting economic infrastructure. Rather an improvised and contextual 5G would be more appropriate for the country largely driven by digitization and automation needs in the government and business sectors.

5G Overview
Unlike early generations of mobile networks, 5G will represent a significant shift in the telco industry’s focus away from voice and more towards mobile broadband and increased industrial applications. In other words, 5G will be use-case driven. Instead of rolling out a tower and offering voice and data services right away, 5G will solve problems across a range of sectors—including transportation, health, manufacturing and agriculture—using a combination of device, connectivity and application.

5G use cases can be divided into the following 3 categories: a) enhanced Mobile Broadband, b) massive Machine Type Communications, and c) Critical communications. Apart from these use-cases, 5G has the potential to allow tailoring of requirements for each of these use-cases categories within the same network.

Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)

eMBB is designed to provide an improved “Unlimited” mobile experience for consumers. Superfast 5G networks with peak data rate of >10 Gbps will enable consumers to view rich content in more places, supporting the streaming of live events and high-resolution media. Increased network capacity of 10,000 times compared to today’s networks will support more users, even in crowded areas, such as large public events, and at peak times providing at least 100 Mbps throughput per user.eMBB will likely be the focus of early 5G deployments as it can immediately support the growing communications requirements for an emerging digital economy like South Asia.

Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC)

The mMTC will support widespread and dense deployment of sensors and other network-connected devices enabling massive Internet-of-Things (IoT) deployment, such as asset tracking, smart agriculture, smart cities, energy monitoring, smart home, remote monitoring. The mMTC will significantly reduce the power requirements (battery life of up to 10 years) and provide flexible coverage across different spectrum bands with the ability to support over 1 Million devices per Sq-km.

Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC)

The URLLC will take human-to-machine interaction to the next level offering sub-millisecond latency and ultra-reliable (i.e. 1 in a million) communications networks supporing the delivery of critical communications—playing role in the technology ecosystem supporting autonomous vehicles, smart grids, remote patient monitoring and telehealth, industrial automation.

5G Opportunities for South Asia


The 5G opportunities can be divided into 3 broader segments – Consumer, Business and Government.

Consumer:

Super-fast, yet affordable 5G networks shall bring new services and experiences to the 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world’s population. The first wave of 5G deployments are envisaged to be primarily based on eMBB use-cases and shall provide unlimited mobile and home broadband experience for the consumers – far better than today’s 4G and WiFi connectivity. Through ultra-high speed and low-latency connections, consumers will be able to avail a broad-range of data-hungry services, such as HD streaming and gaming services, seamless video conferencing and sharing, as well as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) services. All these services are expected to be availed keeping the same monthly budget, thanks to at least 10 times cost reduction from 4G to 5G based data services.

Business:

The eMBB services will also help the fledgling SME and Corporate businesses of the countries to migrate to Cloud supporting various cloud-based software, unified communication and conferencing needs. Using the mMTC, the companies in the RMG, Pharmaceuticals and FMCG sectors will be able to deploy various assembly line and supply chain automation techniques, which will significantly increase their efficiency. On the other hand, applications like asset tracking, logistics & workers’ safety will help the businesses to improve their productivity.

Government:

Perhaps, the most transformative impacts of 5G will be in the government sector for South Asia. 5G powered Smart Cities can implement use-cases like smart parking, smart waste-management, smart street-lights, smart public safety, etc and enable smart decision making and planning to optimize the quality of life for citizens and increase productivity.

5G can accelerate implementation of Smart Grid/Utilities in South Asia  to a great extent, enabling use-cases like smart metering, service quality monitoring, fault localization, automation and control, infrastructure management and demand management. The utilities can utilize these services to better manage between demand & supply, improve service quality & reliability, and ensure precision billing and revenue collection. On the other hand, customers can monitor and manage their consumption in near real-time and pay bills and get notified about alerts and outages through their smart phones.

Apart from the above, 5G can help government implement digitization and automation projects across several sectors like health, education and agriculture.

Key Challenges for 5G deployment in South Asia:

Despite many potential benefits, there are significant challenges exist to implement 5G and get the most out of it. Operators are skeptical about the business case given the high-levels of investment needed to deploy 5G networks, as well as its dependencies on device and apps ecosystem readiness. In such a scenario, actions from the policy-makers will make a great difference in facilitating a robust 5G investment case.

Some of these key challenges are outlined below:

Spectrum: The key features of 5G, i.e. speed, reliability and capacity mainly come from more and new bands of spectrum. Price and allocation modality of spectrum will play a major in the business cases of the 5G operators. With the current level of spectrum price, operators will hardly see any business case for immediate adoption of 5G in South Asia . Moreover, lots of clean-ups and harmonization are required in the 700 MHz, 3.5 GHz and 26-28 GHz bands to make them available for 5G deployment. Affordable access to these spectrum and a clear road map of their availability are the keys to encourage investments in 5G.

Infrastructure: Along with spectrum, easy and affordable access to infrastructure (poles and towers, antenna, fiber network) is also critically important to ensure 5G capacity and coverage. Hence, attention needs to be paid to reform some of the guidelines and arrangements related to authority policies, so that all players can offer their complementary assets and capabilities under a harmonized 5G infrastructure sharing guideline .

Policy: Unlike 2G/3G/4G, the use-case driven 5G technology require close engagements with devices and application developer communities, government agencies and telecom industry. Taxation regime for IoT sensors/devices and connectivity (e.g. SIM TAX, VAT/SD/SC) needs to be reformed to encourage proliferation of IoT applications. Cross-Industry collaboration is required to expedite national ICT projects, such as Smart City/Grid/Education/Health to prepare ground for 5G-based digitalization and automation projects. Also, right and pragmatic policies based on international best practices needs to be put in place for Cloud and Data Centers to cater for the ‘Data Tsunami’ that 5G will fuel.

Security: As 5G networks are expected to become the backbone of many critical national IT applications, such as Smart City, Smart Grids, Healthcare, etc. the integrity and availability of those networks will become major concerns and challenges from national security perspective. Due to its dependencies on devices and applications, risks related to major security flaws may significantly increase. For example, threats deriving from poor firmware and software development processes which make it easier for the hackers to maliciously insert back-doors into products and make them harder to detect. Hence, necessary security and data privacy policies and best practices needs to be in place, such as data encryption, device/software certification, network slicing, etc.

Conclusion

5G is expected to play a key role in an emerging economy of South Asia , improving economic growth, enhancing citizen experiences and creating new business opportunities. The implementation of 5G in South Asia  would be quite different than the rest of the world as, the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region , is leap-frogging from a completely analog to a digital economy bypassing the intermediary steps.

However, significant skepticism exists regarding the investment case of 5G, which needs to be addressed by carefully crafted spectrum, infrastructure, taxation and cloud hosting policies. This can reduce business uncertainties and create an encouraging investment environment for all 5G players, including operators, infrastructure providers, device vendors, developer community, and most importantly, government and business customers.

What is The Difference between 5G and 6G?

What is The Difference between 5G and 6G?

What is 6G? 5G vs 6G, Speed & More

In simple words, 6G is widely believed to be smarter, faster and more efficient than 5G. It promises mobile data speeds 100 times faster than 5G network currently available in limited countries. With speeds of up to 100 times of 100 gigabits per second, 6G is set to be as much as 100 times faster than 5G.

Future Technologies are Closer Than We Think | 6G

While operators are introducing 5G networks , developers have already begun active work on the development and creation of sixth-generation networks, or 6G. In particular, the Huawei announced that it has begun research on 6G — the successor to 5G mobile networks which are not yet widespread, according to its CEO Ren Zhengfei.
He said it’s in an “early phase” and there’s still “10 years to go” before commercialization.

It is now necessary to decide which frequency bands will be used and how they will be licensed by telecom companies. At the same time, the term 6G is still a symbol, because a single definition and even a standard still does not exist.

Tom Wheeler said: “I don’t care what to call it: millimeter waves, 6G or xyz. But we need to start discussions to solve these issues.”

“Nobody Knows How the 6G Standard Will Look Like”

Despite the uncertain standards, this does not mean that there are no real technologies – they already exist. For example, Samsung recently successfully tested wireless networks at about 7.5 Gb / s, which is about 30 times more than LTE, and about a thousand times more than the average fixed broadband user.

One of the main and fundamental differences of 6G technologies is the use of millimeter waves, which allow the use of high-energy frequencies. The use of such frequencies will dramatically increase not only the connection speed, but also the wave propagation range. However, this will increase the permeability of the network – the ability to envelop obstacles and bends of the landscape.

As per experts “Next-generation networks need to be seriously upgraded. How do you meet these requirements? You need to look into the distance. Very, very, far. To infinity and even further.”

It is believed that, theoretically, the 6G standard will increase the speed of wireless communications to 100 times faster than 5G. Currently, the best, fastest fixed fiber optic channels currently have a bandwidth of 100 Gbps. And 5G speeds will allow users to download movies in the Blue-Ray format in a split second. Then think about 6G.

5G standards will have to solve another problem, in addition to increasing speed: in the near future, not only smartphones, tablets and computers will be connected to the Internet; but also cars, household appliances, smart home systems, and much more. Consequently, telecommunications companies will need to significantly increase capacity not only in terms of bandwidth, but also in coverage. Now think about network, application using 6G, that will be 100 times faster than 5G.

According to Huawei, 5G networks will be fully available in 2020 for commercial use.

The process of developing Internet access technologies continues. It seems that recently began running networks 4G standard, the LTE , but experts from the company Huawei has been developing wireless 5G.
There is a possibility that already in 2020 there will be a shortage of network access speed and there will be a need for more modern data transfer technology, which will allow access to the network at speeds up to 10 Gbit / second at any point in the network. Of course, these are the maximum values of the transmission speed (in the incoming channel), in reality, the speeds will have lower values, as with all previous technologies , but the speed will be enough to satisfy any user requests.

5G Network Background

According to the forecasts of specialists from Huawei, which is one of the leaders in the development and production of equipment for organizing wireless networks (both 3G and 4G), the need for a new data transfer technology will arise very soon and by 2020 it is necessary to begin construction of 5G networks to satisfy all subscriber requests.
In the next decade, the number of mobile Internet users will increase many times, in connection with this there will be a lack of bandwidth and the inability to provide quality service, which is why modernization of existing data transfer technologies is necessary.
Today, subscribers of networks of the 3rd and 4th generations have a good or acceptable quality of the service provided . With an increase in the load on base stations, the throughput will noticeably decrease, therefore, it is necessary to expand the capacity or move to a new level, giving subscribers with the same capacities a better service at a higher access speed.
According to the head of the LKT Huawei (Laboratory for Communication Technologies), the entry into the 5G network market will attract many more subscribers to the connection. The emergence of services that require large bandwidth capabilities, such as video communications, which require a high data transfer rate for high-quality image transmission, as well as minimal delay between devices for a greater reality of presence.
5G networks, together with other existing computing technologies, will make the world even more mobile and truly affordable.

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What is 5G? The Ultimate Guide Available on Internet

What is 5G? The Ultimate Guide Available on Internet

Everything You Need to Know About 5G

What is 5G?

Until recently, there were four generations of mobile communications in the world . Currently, operators, with the support of equipment suppliers (vendors), are actively testing the capabilities of fifth-generation networks, whose commercial expansion is expected by 2020. To explain this is quite simple: there is the so-called ten-year rule. If you look a little into the past, you can see that each new generation of mobile communications appeared about 10 years after the previous one: the first generation appeared in the early 80s, the second in the early 90s, the third in the early 00s, the fourth in 2009 year. The conclusion suggests itself that 5G commercial networks will begin to fill the world in 2020.

The fifth generation mobile communication standard (5G) is a new stage in the development of technology, which is designed to expand the possibilities of accessing the Internet through radio access networks.

The standardization of mobile networks of 2, 3, 4 and 5 generations is carried out by a partnership project for standardization of 3rd generation systems (3rd Generation Partnership Project, 3GPP)

In 2017, 3GPP officially announced that 5G will become the official name for the next generation of mobile communications and introduced a new official logo for the communications standard.

The tasks that 5G technology is designed to solve:

  • Mobile traffic growth
  • Increase the number of devices connected to the network
  • Reduction of delays for the implementation of new services
  • Lack of frequency spectrum

5G Network Services

  • Extreme Mobile Broadband (eMBB) – implementation of ultra-wideband communication with the aim of transmitting “heavy” content;
  • Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) – support for the Internet of Things (ultra-narrowband)
  • Ultra-Reliable Low Latency communication (URLLC) – providing a special class of services with very low latencies

It is obvious that in the future much more devices will be connected to the network, most of which will work on the principle of “always online”. At the same time, their low power consumption will be a very important parameter.

5G Network Requirements

  • Network bandwidth up to 20 Gbit / s downlink (ie, to the subscriber); and up to 10 Gb / s in the opposite direction.
  • Support for simultaneous connection of up to 1 million devices / km 2.
  • Reducing the time delay on the radio interface to 0.5 ms (for the services of Ultra-Reliable Inter-Machine Communication URLLC) and up to 4 ms (for services of the Ultra-Wideband Mobile Communication eMBB).

Potential 5G Technology

1) Massive MIMO
MIMO technology means using multiple antennas on transceivers. The technology, successfully applied in fourth-generation networks, will find application in 5G networks. Moreover, if MIMO 2×2 and 4×4 are currently used in networks , then in the future the number of antennas will increase. This technology has two weighty arguments for application at once: 1) the data transfer rate increases almost proportionally to the number of antennas, 2) the signal quality improves when a signal is received by several antennas at the same time due to diversity reception ( Receive Diversity ).

2) Transition to the centimeter and millimeter ranges: Currently, LTE networks operate in frequency ranges below 3.5 GHz. For the full functioning of 5G mobile networks, it is necessary to deploy networks in more free high-frequency ranges. With an increase in the frequency at which information is transmitted, the communication range decreases. This is the law of physics, you can get around it only by increasing the transmitter power, which is limited by sanitary standards. However, it is believed that the base stations of the fifth generation networks will be denser than now, due to the need to create a much larger network capacity. The advantage of the tens of GHz bands is the presence of a large amount of free spectrum.

3) Multi-technology
To provide high-quality service in 5G networks, it is necessary to support both existing standards, such as UMTS , GSM , LTE , and others, for example, Wi-Fi. Base stations using Wi-Fi technology can be used to offload traffic in especially busy places.

4) D2D (Device-to-device)
Device-to-device technology allows devices located close to each other to exchange data directly, without the participation of the 5G network, through the core of which only signal traffic will pass. The advantage of this technology is the ability to transfer data transfer to the unlicensed part of the spectrum, which will further offload the network.

5) The new radio interface in 5G networks and other innovations.

What will 5G mobile networks be?

What will be 5G mobile networks? Technical innovations: virtualization, radio interface, Massive MIMO, Spectrum sharing, New Full Duplex and others

Mobile technology has firmly entered our lives and continues to strengthen its position. Mobile networks are operator networks that provide voice and Internet access on the one hand, and on the other hand a diverse range of gadgets, sensors and smart devices: from smart trackers in the present to smart coffee makers, cars and entire cities in the near future .

According to the rule of 10 years, every decade a generation of mobile communications is replaced . But even one standard within 10 years does not stand still. For example, the fourth generation is classified by LTE , LTE-A ; the WiMAX ; 4,5G and others. If you rely on the rule, there are still about three to four years for 4G dominance . At the same time, information about innovations for 5G networks and testing of pre-5G networks is increasingly appearing . Some vendors and operators receive ambitious statements to deploy them during 2018-2020.

To date, official 5G standards have been formed. Leading players in the global telecommunications market, including Qualcomm, Huawei, Ericsson, Verizon, AT&T, Nokia and others, offer their concepts for future networks by testing their prototypes.

The key feature of each generation, which is announced first of all, is the data transfer rate. However, this is not the only characteristic. Taking into account the development of the Internet of things and, as a result, an increase in the number of connected devices, as well as with an ever-increasing volume of consumed traffic, the following requirements for the fifth generation are defined:

  • Network bandwidth over 10 Gb / s.
  • Support for simultaneous connection of up to 100 million devices / km 2.
  • Data transfer delay no more than 1 ms.
  • The distribution between the various services of the required frequency resource.

Virtualized Architecture 5G

Software-Defined Networks ( SDN ) can become an effective technology that will reduce operator equipment and simplify infrastructure maintenance . SDN promotes the digital transformation of companies and the transfer of services to the cloud. The fundamental principle of Software-Defined Networks is remote control of the network and data transmission devices, i.e. programmatically.

In turn, it is assumed that in the optimization of network functions NVF (Network Functions Virtualization) will virtualize the various functions of many network elements of mobile operators, as well as implement a “network on demand”. Those. data will be processed and stored in a virtual environment (“in the cloud”). The classic equipment will retain the function of transmitting user traffic. This approach to fifth-generation networking meets the trends in wireless connectivity, namely convergence. Convergence involves the integration of isolated network objects into a single computing complex. This is also important for smart devices in order to exchange information online.

To organize a specific part of the network, operators use already developed solutions with a set of necessary parameters and specific equipment. Virtualization of 5G and networks “on demand” will allow you to pre-arrange servers and DATA centers for operators, i.e. will provide a “boxed” solution for them, significantly reducing the time and financial costs of introducing new services.

Regarding the network architecture in the fifth generation there are three “cloud” whales that provide its work.

Access

Access cloud

Control

Cloud management

Forward

Transport cloud

– organization of distributed and centralized technologies

– organization of access systems

– 5G compatibility with 3G and 4G

– session management

– mobility management

– service quality management

– physical data transfer

– ensuring network reliability and speed

– load balancing

Improved radio interface for 5G networks

5G radio interface modelOne of the obstacles to starting 5G is the lack of frequency spectrum. It is assumed that in future networks the resource will expand, including due to the millimeter range. The problem of network coverage and accessibility is supposed to be solved by targeting subscribers, that is, the radio coverage of the network will be adjusted to the needs of subscribers, unlike previous standards.

The efficiency of the fifth generation radio interface will be tripled, i.e. It will skip up to 3 times more data with the same bandwidth. Expected rate: 6 bps at 1 Hz.

For example, as candidates for the title of the 5G radio network interface, Huawei offers the following technical solutions:

1. SCMA (Sparse Code Multiple Access).
This is a low-cost code-based subscriber separation method that does not require delivery confirmation. It works as follows. Before broadcasting over the radio interface, bytes streams of different subscribers from one frequency resource are converted into a codeword using the so-called codebook . The signal recovery at the receiving side is also performed using the codebook.

2. F-OFDM (Flexibel OFDM).
F-OFDM will provide its own set of parameters for each task due to the flexible decomposition into subcarriers, the use of different symbol lengths and the changing value of the cyclic prefix. F-OFDM is an enhanced version of OFDM

3. Polar Code – technology with sub-squared coding complexity.
It is a linear correction code based on the phenomenon of channel polarization.

Polar codes will increase the frequency spectrum by 3 times, allow decoding of linear complexity and significantly increase the data transfer rate.

Related Technologies:A number of other technologies are called upon to create a more perfect and qualitatively different infrastructure of 5G networks. Among them, Massive MIMO, which allows transmitting up to 8 data streams to one subscriber. Massive MIMO is a complex of several antennas that will form very sharp radiation patterns. The multi-beam technology will improve the level of the received signal and eliminate interference from other subscribers, which will positively affect the network bandwidth and the efficiency of using the frequency spectrum.

Bright directions of the concept of the Internet of things are the interaction of M2M (machine-to-machine interaction, Eng. Machine-to-Machine, M2M ) and D2D (device-to-device, Eng. Device to Device ). M2M technology is necessary for the interaction of devices among themselves without the direct participation of a person, i.e. to automate processes. The scope of M2M is quite wide. For example, in payment terminals, security systems, and vehicle coordination systems. Technology reduces the cost of processes, as well as minimizes their dependence on the human factor, and allows you to quickly respond to malfunctioning systems.

Specifications 5G. Comparison of 4G and 5G

  • 5G mobile communication technology has the following characteristics:
  • Increase the peak speed to 20 Gbit / s downlink (i.e. from the base station to the mobile); and up to 10 Gb / s in the opposite direction.
  • The growth of practical speed per subscriber to 100 Mbps or more.
  • Increase in spectral efficiency in 5G networks by 2-5 times. On the downlink: 30 bit / s / Hz, on the uplink – 15 bit / s / Hz.
  • Increasing energy efficiency by 2 orders. This will allow the Internet of Things devices to work without recharging the battery for 10 years;
  • Reducing the time delay on the radio interface to 0.5 ms (for the services of Ultra-Reliable Inter-
  • Machine Communication URLLC) and up to 4 ms (for services of the Ultra-Wideband Mobile Communication eMBB).
  • Increase in speed of subscriber movement up to 500 km / h.
  • Increase in the total number of connected devices to 1 million / km 2 .

5G Services

  • The main services that require the creation of a new generation of mobile communication networks are as follows:
    ultra-wideband mobile communication (enhanced Mobile Broadband, eMBB),
    ultra-reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC),
    mass machine communication (Massive Machine-Type Communications, mMTC).
  • The importance of each of the key 5G capabilities for xMBB, uMTC, and mMTC usage scenarios is given in the book Mobile Communications Toward 6G . The degree of importance is estimated by three approximate indicators: “high”, “medium” and “low”.
  • In scenarios for eMBB, the following are of high importance:

-practical user data transfer rate,

– traffic per unit area,

– peak data rate,

– mobility,

– energy efficiency

– spectrum efficiency.

In some URLLC scenarios, low latency is high to ensure that critical security services work [see ch. 14.7 of the book “ Mobile communications on the way to 6G ”], as well as a high level of mobility in the field of transportation safety services.

MMTC scenarios are characterized by a high density of connections and the need to maintain the correct functioning of a large number of devices on the network. To implement this scenario, the low cost of the device and its energy efficiency are important.

Services in 5G networks can also be classified by the provided content for subscribers:

  • Multimedia services: video in 4K, 8K resolution, 3D-video, online games, services based on holograms and multimedia with the full effect of presence;
  • Cloud services: file storage, government services, business applications;
  • virtual reality services (Virtual Reality, VR);
  • Augmented Reality (AR) services: healthcare, military, education, entertainment;
  • Big Data Intelligent Services in order to improve business efficiency (business intelligence, BI), as well as operation and network management (network intelligence, NI);
  • Internet of Things (IoT) services based on mass connection of devices: energy, transport, healthcare, trade, public safety, industry, housing and communal services.
  • Ultra-low latency services: control of robotic mechanisms, telemedicine, unmanned vehicles, 3D games.

5G Speed

A significant increase in throughput and practical data transfer speed will require a significant expansion and increase in spectrum utilization, as well as an extremely high density of connections, which is unattainable for LTE / LTE-A standards even if they are improved.

Thus, the implementation of fifth-generation networks, especially the increase in data transfer rates, will require a significant increase in the frequency resource. One solution to this problem is frequency refarming – the procedure for replacing the used radio technology with the radio frequencies allocated to the telecommunications operator. For example, in agreement with the regulator, the launch of eNodeB LTE at frequencies allocated to the operator under a 2G or 3G radio network.

This spectrum will not be enough for 5G ultra-fast services, a new spectrum is needed in the bands above 6 GHz. So, at the World Radio Conference in 2019 ( WRC -19), it is planned to allocate additional frequency ranges above 6 GHz for mobile communications.

Fifth generation (5G) mobile networks will be characterized by high speeds (up to 20 Gbit / s downlink and up to 10 Gbit / s uplink).

It is also expected that real speed per subscriber will increase to 100 Mbit / s and more.

The above values ​​of speed increase will be achieved by increasing the spectral efficiency of 5G networks by 2-5 times in comparison with fourth-generation networks. This, in turn, will be available through the use of the following technical solutions:

– Massive MIMO

– Use of the new version of the radio interface New Radio

– Wider bandwidth

5G Frequency Bands

At what frequencies 5G networks will work ? This issue is especially acute, since the implementation of fifth-generation networks, especially increasing data transfer rates, will require a significant increase in the frequency resource. Here are the main approaches.

Frequency Refarming
One solution to this problem is frequency refarming – the procedure for replacing the used radio technology with the radio frequencies allocated to the telecommunications operator. For example, in agreement with the regulator, the launch of eNodeB LTE at frequencies allocated to the operator under a 2G or 3G radio network.

Use of unlicensed frequency bands
Within the framework of 5G networks, it is also planned to actively use unlicensed frequency bands, in particular frequency bands in the 5 GHz band

Using high frequency ranges
Nevertheless, a transition to the region of higher frequencies is considered more promising . The main point when choosing frequency bands at the national level (including use in the Russian Federation) is to ensure the use of 5G networks harmonized with international standards, and for this, accordingly, it is necessary to search at the international level for such frequency bands that would be slightly loaded at the national level level.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) carries out global and regional regulation of the use of private spectrum. In turn, decisions on the allocation of frequencies are made at the World Radio Conference (WRC). At WRC-15, in 2015, it was decided to allocate bands in the range 3.4-3.6 GHz for mobile broadband services, i.e. perspective and for fifth generation networks. However, for 5G ultra-fast services this spectrum will not be enough, a new spectrum is needed in the bands above 6 GHz. So, at the World Radio Conference in 2019 ( WRC -19), it is planned to allocate additional frequency ranges above 6 GHz for mobile communications.

5G networks are expected to use the frequency band from 100 MHz to several GHz. At frequencies up to 40 GHz, the frequency band must be at least 500 MHz. Accordingly, with an increase in the frequency at which data is transmitted, the radius of the cell that the base station can serve decreases. Consequently, fifth-generation networks will be deployed on the basis of Small Cells.

The new frequency ranges proposed for the deployment of 5G systems, as well as the priority of using frequency bands for 5G in the ranges from 10-40.5 GHz and 40.5-100 GHz.

In 5G-NR networks, frequency (FDD) and time (TDD) duplex are used to separate the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) directions, depending on the band used. To improve the radio coverage of networks in high frequency ranges, where the signal from the user terminal is usually limiting in communication range, it is also possible to work with an additional carrier on the uplink (Supplementary Uplink) in a lower frequency range.

In 5G-NR, the maximum permissible bandwidth of one radio channel compared to 4G-LTE networks increased from 20 MHz to 100 MHz for the radio frequency unit FR1. So the width of one radio channel for the FR1 block (depending on the spacing between the subcarriers) can be 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 MHz.

5G Network Standardization
The standardization of mobile networks of 2, 3, 4 and 5 generations is carried out by a partnership project for standardization of 3rd generation systems (3rd Generation Partnership Project, 3GPP.

The initial plan for the preparation of 5G specifications was as follows: the 1st phase of the specifications should be completed before the second half of 2018 (within the framework of Rel’15 3GPP); 2nd phase of specifications – until December 2019 (within the framework of Rel’16 3GPP). But, due to the interest of a number of operators to accelerate the commercialization of 5G systems, 3GPP decided to reduce the standardization time.

So, by the end of 2017, work was completed on creating specifications for the protocols of the first and second levels of the 5G radio interface for high-speed applications (the working name of the New Radio, NR radio interface).

Due to the reduction in standardization time, the 3GPP consortium is forced to reduce the number of options considered and specified.

Release 14 3GPP – Research phase – services, requirements, new radio interface, new architecture.

Release 15 3GPP – Phase 1 – Specifications for the urgent implementation and commercialization of the first use cases

Release 15 3GPP (5G Phase 1) includes the following features:

  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband ( eMBB )
  • Ultra Reliable Ultra Low Latency Communication (URLLC)
  • Bands <52.6 GHz
  • OFDM- based Orthogonal Radio Interface
  • 5G Offline Architecture (NSA) with LTE System
  • EPC Connectivity
  • Standalone architecture with the new 5G core
  • Interaction with the LTE system
  • Separation of management levels and user traffic
  • (CP / UP Split)
  • Network Slicing
  • QoS Procedures
  • Session and Mobility Management
  • Management of service policies, charging,
  • Security features
  • Support IMS , SMS
  • Interaction with non-3GPP networks without trust access (untrusted Non-3GPP)

Release 16 3GPP (5G Phase 2) includes the following features:

  • Interference suppression
  • 5G SON & Big Data
  • 5G MIMO Enhancements
  • 5G location enhancement
  • 5G Power Consumption Improvement
  • Dual Connectivity Enhancements
  • Device capabilities exchange
  • Dynamic and flexible TDD
  • Non-orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)
  • 5G Vehicle to X (V2X)
  • 5G Industrial Internet of Things ( IIoT )
  • Integration of access and transport channels
  • (Integrated Access and Backhaul)
  • 5G operation in the unlicensed frequency spectrum
  • 5G satellite domain
  • 5G above 52.6 GHz

Thus, Release 16 3GPP will increase the efficiency of 5G networks and expand the application of fifth-generation technologies.

5G For People and For Devices?

Every 10 years, mobile technologies take a revolutionary step into the future, opening up new services and opportunities for people. And now the next 10 years expire. The fifth generation (5G) mobile communications network is next in turn. What will they give users and telecom operators?

Throughout its history, mobile networks have undergone significant changes, and they continue to this day. The transmission technologies, the list of services provided to subscribers, etc. are changing and modernizing. In order to fix the most important transformations, the concept of “generation” (“G” – Generation) was introduced.

According to the “ten years” rule, each new generation of mobile communications appears in 10 years. Those. a kind of “mobile revolution” is taking place.

5G (5th Generation – fifth generation) is the official name of the mobile communications standard following the standards of previous generations. This is a new stage in the development of technology, which is designed to expand the possibilities of accessing the Internet through radio access networks.

The relevance of launching 5G networks.
We list the key trends in the mobile industry today:

  • Mobile Internet access has become more important and more demanded than fixed;
  • Growth forecast for “mobile traffic” – 5 times in 6 years.
  • Existing opportunities to increase the capacity of networks at times and maintain a high level of quality of service are practically exhausted.

5G networks will represent a combination of new and existing radio interfaces and will mark the creation of a unified wireless infrastructure providing the widest range of services. The introduction of new and the use of existing services will serve as a driver for a significant increase in traffic in mobile networks.

The main factors for increasing traffic should include:

  • Growth in the consumption of video services and an increase in the resolution of video images: by 2024, video will account for 74% of mobile traffic;
  • An increase in the number of devices (starting with smartphones and tablets, ending with numerous sensors of the class of Internet of Things (Internet of Things, IoT);
  • Increase the pace of application use;
  • Increase in popularity of cloud technologies – models of online storage of subscriber data on numerous servers distributed on the Internet;
  • Online games and their updates.

Market Expectations from 5G

More than a quarter of users (26%) expect 5G networks to have higher speeds compared to previous generation networks (Fig. 3). Then, with 13%, there are expectations that 5G networks will:

  • Have improved network coverage inside and outside buildings;
  • Faster Wi-Fi;
  • Cheaper.

5G network requirements

The main technical requirements for 5G networks are

ParameterValue
Peak data rate20 Gbit / s (to the subscriber); 100 Mbps – 1 Gbps (from the subscriber)
Practical speed per subscriber100 Mbps – 1 Gbps
Spectral efficiency

2-5x (increase  in 2-5 times in comparison with LTE-Advanced )

Subscriber Mobility

Up to 500 km / h

Energy efficiency

100x ( 100x  magnification  over LTE-Advanced )

Time delay in the radio interface

Up to 0.5 ms (for URLLC)  and up to 4 ms (for mMTC)

  
  
Traffic density≥ 10 Mbps / sq.m
Number of active user terminals≥1 million sq. Km
ParameterDefinition
Peak data rateThe maximum achievable data transfer rate in ideal conditions to one subscriber terminal (in Gbit / s)
Practical speed per subscriberAchievable data transfer rate, which is available to the subscriber / device throughout the coverage area (in Mbit / s or Gbit / s)
Spectral efficiencyAverage data throughput per unit of spectrum resource and per cell (bit / s / Hz)
Energy efficiencyIt is determined by two aspects:
1) on the network side – by the number of information bits transmitted / received from the subscriber per unit of energy consumption in the radio access network (in bit / J);
2) on the side of the subscriber terminal, energy efficiency is determined by the number of information bits per unit of energy consumption by the communication module (in bit / J)
Time delay in the radio interfaceContribution of the radio network to the time interval from the moment the data packet is sent by the source until it is received by the recipient (in ms)
Subscriber MobilityThe maximum speed (in km / h) that can be achieved with a given quality of service (QoS) and continuity of control transfer between radio nodes, which may belong to different levels and / or radio access technologies
Traffic densityThe total speed of traffic served per unit of geographic area (in Mbps / sq. M)
Number of active user terminalsThe total number of connected or available subscriber terminals per unit area (per sq. Km)

Key Services in 5G networks
The fifth generation mobile communication networks should provide support for a variety of services that can be combined into three main basic services:

  1. Ultra-wideband mobile communication (Extreme Mobile Broadband, eMBB);
  2. Mass machine communication (Massive Machine-Type Communications, mMTC);
  3. Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC).

The latter two are especially important in the context of the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT).

The importance of the key features of 5G networks
The degree of importance of each of the key 5G features for eMBB, URLLC, and mMTC usage scenarios. The degree of importance is estimated by three approximate indicators: “high”, “medium” and “low”.

For eMBB class services, the following are of primary importance:

  • Practical user data rate;
  • Traffic per unit area;
  • Peak data rate
  • Mobility;
  • Energy efficiency;
  • Spectrum utilization efficiency.

URLLC services are characterized by.

  • Low latency for mission critical security services.
  • High level of mobility (in the field of transportation safety services).

For mMTC services, the following are of high importance:

  • High density of compounds;
  • The need to maintain the correct functioning of a large number of devices on the network.

To implement this class of services, the low cost of the device and its energy efficiency are important.

Services in 5G networks can also be classified by the provided content for subscribers:

  • Multimedia services: video in 4K, 8K resolution, 3D-video, online games, services based on holograms and multimedia with the full effect of presence;
  • Cloud services: file storages, business applications;
    virtual reality services (Virtual Reality, VR);
  • Augmented Reality (AR) services: healthcare, military, education, entertainment;
  • Intellectual services based on Big Data in order to increase business efficiency (business intelligence, BI), as well as operation and network management (network intelligence, NI);
  • Internet of Things (IoT) services based on mass connection of devices: energy, transport, healthcare, trade, public safety, industry, housing and communal services;
  • Ultra-low latency services: control of robotic mechanisms, tele-medicine, unmanned vehicles, 3D games.

The latency and bandwidth requirements of 5G networks, depending on the type of service.

5G Network Health Concerns:

Regarding exposure to radio waves WHO has already standards which are being strictly followed by Mobile operators while designing wireless network products that both transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) energy as per WHO compliance.5G mobile radio access technologies must comply with established national and international standards and regulations on RF exposure.

The following WHO statements apply to mobile and wireless network technologies implemented by Nokia:


• WHO’s Fact Sheet 304 extracts:
“From all evidence accumulated so far, no adverse short- or long-term health effects have been shown
to occur from the RF signals produced by base stations.”
“Considering the very low exposure levels and research results collected to date, there is no convincing
scientific evidence that the weak radio frequency signals from base stations and wireless networks
cause adverse health effects.”


http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs304/en/

• WHO’s Fact Sheet 193 extract: “A large number of studies have been performed over the last two
decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk. To date, no adverse health
effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use.”

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/

 

5G Network Test Result

The first commercial pilot launches of fifth-generation networks are planned in 2018 as part of the World Cup. Not only federal, but also foreign mobile operators and manufacturers of telecommunication equipment are taking part in their development.

One of the leaders on the development of 5G is Huawei. The company tests prototypes of networks both independently and in partnership with other interested participants. Besides

5G is being implemented by Huawei, Sumsung, Qualcomm and others. In Russia, among the federal operators are MTS and MegaFon

Nevertheless, it is early to expect the introduction of full-fledged 5G networks in the near future, despite many tests. Operators are exploring the capabilities of next-generation networks and making marketing announcements. But standardizing structures have yet to resolve many formal issues. Priority is the specification of the standard by 3GPP and the allocation of frequencies for new networks. Undoubtedly, the experimental achievements of operators will accelerate this process and will contribute to the implementation of 5G networks as they are expected: high-speed, environmentally friendly, reliable, convergent and universally available.

Must Have Marketing Skills to Survive in The Age of AI

Must Have Marketing Skills to Survive in The Age of AI

10 Skills Without Which A Marketer Cannot Survive in The Age of AI

It happened. We live in an age of artificial intelligence. I can’t believe it, right?

It is high time for marketers to accept this fact and begin to prepare for the inevitable changes in the technology era.

Already, machines are actively learning to recognize images and speech, to predict the likelihood of the development of certain events and make decisions. That is to do our work.

Today, the most effective brands are more than twice as likely as competitors to use AI in their marketing processes. Artificial intelligence helps companies to increase sales, indicators are growing due to the personalization of experience .

Over the past 5 years, the number of jobs requiring AI knowledge has grown by 450%.

And artificial intelligence will continue to conquer the field of marketing. Are you ready for this?

In today’s article, we’ll talk about 12 skills without which a marketer cannot survive in the AI ​​age.

1. Flexibility
If you don’t start to adapt today, you will soon be behind your competitors. Just look at how many companies are already using AI, and how many plan to implement this technology in the future: AI is the fastest growing marketing technology. It is expected that over the year it will grow by 53%.

If you want to succeed, you need to adapt. Do not rely too much on time-tested strategies. Feel free to experiment and test new technologies.

2. Sociability
It’s not new to marketers that developed communication skills make a significant contribution to business success. It is important to be able to convey your thoughts to employees, customers and other people with whom you have to communicate every day.

In the age of AI, communications are becoming an even more significant element of business. After all, not one, even the most advanced artificial intelligence, is capable of replacing live communication.

Do not delegate communication with clients to robots at 100%. In the age of high technology, the human face of the brand will become a major competitive advantage.

3. Budget allocation
The introduction of artificial intelligence is not cheap. For this reason, most brands do not use solutions in AI marketing:

For what reason you are not interested in implementing AI solutions ?
If you decide to incorporate new technology into your strategy, you cannot do without planning and budget allocation skills.

Try to find ways to cut costs in other areas to enter the new century before the competition.

4. The ability to analyze big data
AI will open up access to huge amounts of data that are important to be able to analyze.

According to research, 29% of brands use artificial intelligence to automate data analysis. 26% use AI to analyze operational effectiveness. As a result, business owners receive large amounts of information, on the basis of which it is necessary to draw conclusions and make decisions. Are you ready for this?

5. Programming Skills
To use artificial intelligence, you do not have to be a programmer. However, knowledge in this area will not be superfluous, for sure. For example, they will help to save on the call to a specialist.

You will have enough basic skills to configure the collection of data that you need.

Often AI is used to identify patterns. If you are good at programming, it will be much easier for you to understand the features of this field of application.

Far from all this? You can easily find basic information on the Internet, for example, on Codecademy . Both courses for beginners in programming basics and specialized training materials in data science will come in handy.

6. Content creation
Content is king, right? The main goal of modern business is to create effective content both from the point of view of users and search engines. Any marketing strategy is based on the generation of content.

The competent use of artificial intelligence will allow you to make your articles, posts, videos, photos, audio, email messages even better. For example, some brands due to AI make Facebook ads even more relevant for different user groups. And this is only one of hundreds of areas of application of artificial intelligence for creating and promoting content.

7. Security
Over the past few years, we have only heard about constant leaks of information in large corporations. These messages significantly damage the reputation of brands.

Do you want your customers not to worry about the safety of their personal data? Use AI with caution.

Consumers believe that artificial intelligence can make it harder for a business to secure online. Develop this myth by conducting thematic campaigns, and always responsibly treat user data.

8. The spirit of competition
Marketing is a high stakes game. You constantly have to fight with other companies for users.

After the massive introduction of artificial intelligence, competition will only intensify. Without the spirit of competition, one cannot survive.

84% of marketers are confident that AI will help them outperform competitors. Find out, and your rivals are already introducing new technology?

9. Delegation and time management

The community is hotly debating the possibility of replacing people with robots in most jobs. But this does not mean that AI should be considered as a threat. Rather, it is a dream assistant for any marketer. After all, with its help you can automate many tasks.

You no longer have to load workers with the work that a computer can easily do. They will have more time to solve creative problems.

10. Thirst for knowledge
To survive in the age of AI, it is important to be able to learn. The benefit for this today is not necessary to leave the house. There are many training courses and webinars available online.

Technologies are constantly evolving, so you should closely monitor the news, expand your knowledge and listen to the opinions of experts.

Does your business need artificial intelligence to survive?

Naturally, it is not so necessary as a presence in social networks, your website and the ability to accept online payments. From this point of view, it will not be easy to convince yourself of the need for such a serious step. But in this case, it is important to have a broad outlook and look at things in the future.

If even now you can’t afford the introduction of technology, you need to start closely monitoring it today. After all, artificial intelligence is the future, and not just marketing.

Cutting Edge Technologies That Will Change Marketing Industry Forever

Cutting Edge Technologies That Will Change Marketing Industry Forever

It is difficult to imagine a marketing field that modern technologies would not significantly change. Companies that rely on artificial intelligence, virtual reality and voice search, gain an advantage over competitors and let them create future promotions with extra ordinary results.

We have listes 10 leading marketing technologies and the possibility of their application in companies of various sizes. Which of them will you choose to transform your strategy?

10 Cutting Edge Technologies Changing Internet Marketing

1. Big data

• Improves the quality of customer data collection for fine-tuning advertising campaigns.
• Helps evaluate campaign performance.
• In the near future, big data will allow creating attribution models to assess the impact of each channel on conversion rates, customize programmatic ads and optimize video marketing.

2. Artificial Intelligence

• Finds valuable patterns for more effective targeting and prediction of consumer behavior.
• Used by search engines to analyze queries and select the appropriate content.
• Based on artificial intelligence, platforms for online chat are created that help to automatically collect customer information and solve problems on demand.
• AI-based technologies deeply analyze trends, create detailed customer profiles, and help develop successful personalization strategies for better customer focus.

3. Machine Learning ( ML )

• It is used in audience segmentation and is embedded in analytics systems to track anomalies and analyze large volumes of data in real time.
• Robots have learned to create content. Banner advertising, email campaigns, posts on social networks are generated in different formats for different channels. After analyzing enough data, machines can create and change headers to increase efficiency.

4. Bots

• Not only an effective tool for communication, but also a channel for round-the-clock interaction with the brand.
• Often used in sales and support, help find and recommend products.
• Soon they will be able to remind of repeated purchases through voice assistants.
• Communication with the chat bot can occur on several devices, be omnichannel.

5. Voice Search

• Marketers use voice search to collect information about device users through search queries, keywords, applications, or voice dialing.
• Soon, voice search will be integrated with SEO. Marketers need to learn how to optimize content for conversational queries.
• The technology has every chance to change the approach to advertising on the search and organic promotion of content.

6. Virtual and Augmented Reality

• Both technologies create an impressive experience that affects feelings and emotions.
• They expand the experience of product testing, brand engagement, and shopping.
• They bring offline stores and ecommerce closer, gradually blurring the line between real and virtual interaction.
• Can be used for storytelling and creating interactive brand content.

7. Internet of things ( IoT ) and wearable devices

• Used to collect information about users: their habits or preferences. The more connected devices a person uses, the more marketers have more opportunities to contact him with an actual offer.
• Wearable devices transmit information on the biological state of consumers to the Internet.
• Biometric data can be used to analyze consumer interactions with the brand.

8. Blockchain

• Using blockchain technology, marketers can motivate consumers to view ads and interact with content.
• Decentralized applications based on blockchain technology can compete with Apple and Android platforms and support a new cooperative economy around the world.

9. Beacons

• Gathers detailed information about the visitor to optimize the shopping experience and helps create personalized campaigns based on movement data.
• Ecommerce companies can use localization to target potential customers within a certain radius of the sensors.
• Combines online and offline presence and provides a consistent experience.
• It helps to determine which campaigns attract attention and show only relevant ads to each client.

10. 5G

• A faster connection allows you to load pages faster, reduce bounce rates, and increase CTR and ROI.
• Enhances display capabilities using VR and AR for an engaging demonstration of offers.
• Allows marketers to collect data in real time to optimize campaigns and local promotion.
These technologies significantly affect marketing and business, including:

• Data collection
• Data analysis
• Content Creation
• Content distribution
• Personalization
• Targeting and placement
• Customer service

Over All Digital or Internet Marketing is going to have huge exponential positive impact with the deployment of these amazing latest technologies.

Technology is evolving and becoming more accessible. Changing the industry under the influence of technology is happening now, you need to have time to master promising areas.

2019 Onward: Everyday Is Information Cyber Security Day

2019 Onward: Everyday Is Information Cyber Security Day

5G, AI and IoT driven Industrie 4.0 has biggest challenge ahead and that is implementing industrial graded security systems. Smart cities, autonomous vehicles and Nuc plants just imagine the importance of computer network systems security and impact of any cyber attack. World cyber security day, week and month November 2019 is here to highlight the importance of this challenge that we are going to face in future.Talks, demo, conferences, and an AI, 5G,IoT Hackathon will compose the month of cyber security.

During all these awareness efforts we are here, Windows ‘BlueKeep’ CyberAttack Is Happening Right Now.

Even That U.S. Government has warned us about the devastating risks of BlueKeep a security vulnerability that was discovered in Microsoft's Remote Desktop Protocol implementation, which allows for the possibility of remote code execution.

As a vulnerability such as Wanna Cry describes Microsoft Bluekeep. Now security researchers discovered the first malware that exploits the gap. However, this is still a long way from the worst-case scenario.

Already in May, Microsoft vigorously warned of a vulnerability that could spread like Wanna Cry independently. For the first time, security researchers Kryptos Logic have been able to sift through malicious software that exploits the Bluekeep gap. However, it seems almost harmless to the potential of the vulnerability.

Since Microsoft released security updates in May for all supported and even unsupported operating systems, there was silence before the storm. A wave of attack on unprotected devices that did not play the security updates was just a matter of time. Gradually, security researchers also released proof of concepts (PoC) or even exploits for pentesting software. But the big attack was slow is coming.

For the first time, security researchers discovered malicious software in the wild, exploiting the Bluekeep vulnerability. In a honeypot, a computer with vulnerabilities run by security researchers to detect and analyze malicious software, they discovered malicious software that used the loophole to steal computing power. This used the malicious software for cryptomining. However, the malicious software crashed the affected Honeypot, so security researchers doubt the reliable functioning of the malicious software.

The Bluekeep Cryptominer is not a worm


The Bluekeep vulnerability allows malicious code to be executed on an affected Windows system without the need for system authentication or user interaction. A computer worm could self-propagate through the vulnerability from vulnerable computer to vulnerable computer. However, according to the security researchers, the malicious software that has now been discovered does not spread on its own. Instead, the attackers scan for vulnerable systems and then attack them.

One reason for the absence of a Blueekeep worm could be Microsoft's handling of the vulnerability. Security updates and warnings from Microsoft may have contributed to significantly reducing vulnerable devices. "Every month that passes without a worm being released, more people are turning to security updates and the number of vulnerable devices is falling," said security researcher Jake Williams Wired. That so far no attacker had exploited the gap on a large scale, could also be based on a cost-benefit calculation. There may be too little affected Windows machines, as that is worth the effort, explains Williams.

In contrast, Wanna Cry paralyzed millions of Windows machines in 2017 , leading to system failures at a number of companies . In addition to the scoreboards of the train denied many money, ticket and gas station machines the service. Calculator of the mobile operator Telefónica were also affected, and the car manufacturer Renault had stopped its production in some plants as a precaution. The Wanna Cry malware was based on a vulnerability in Samba hoarded by the US National Security Agency (NSA), leaked by the hacker group The Shadow Brokers .

Google is Buying Fitbit: Now What?

Google is Buying Fitbit: Now What?

Simple answer to this question is, What are you wearing on your wrist? Thats the main reason for this deal that Google was outranked by Apple due to Apple Watch (the hardware part) where people were switching from android to Apple. Health and Fitness industry is driving force here.

Fitbit one of the largest companies in wearable technology devices field, snapped up by Google and worries for Xiaomi and Apple.At the moment Google Fitbit acquisition is pending regulatory approval.

Google is buying Fitbit: Now What?

After getting Fitbit, big G is going to challenge Apple and Xiaomi in the field of fitness wearable products.Another untapped area for Google that got her attention now.

Google is very aggressive to expand business and also in talks about buying Firework, a video-sharing startup that is a rival to TikTok.

Google is concerned about Tiktok’s growing popularity and wants to buy Firework. During the downloads, the short video social app was in front of Youtube or Whatsapp.

Google has been discussing the purchase of the short video social platform Firework, a competitor of Tiktok. The Wall Street Journal reports , citing informed circles. Firework, based in Redwood City, California, was valued at over $ 100 million in a round of financing earlier this year. A purchase price would usually be higher.

Google and Firework have not yet discussed the price of a takeover, according to the report. The negotiations may not lead to agreement and there is a possibility that the companies will only become partners.

Also, Weibo, the Chinese Twitter competitor, is interested in Firework, even if the negotiations are not as advanced according to informed circles as with Google.

Video portals for short playback clips and other videos are popular with kids and teens. The Chinese short video app Douyin, known abroad as Tiktok, is an offer of the company. According to the Analytics platform Sensor Tower, Tiktok’s monthly downloads were ahead of Whatsapp, Youtube and Google Maps. According to media reports, the playback app Musical.ly was acquired by By tedance in November 2017 for around $ 800 million and merged with Tiktok. At Musical.ly, the lips are to be moved in sync to songs or movie quotes in a maximum of 15 seconds long clips.

Tiktok’s parent company, Bytedance, based in Beijing, has a value of $ 75 billion. Facebook responded to Tiktok’s growing popularity in 2018 with the Lasso app. Snap has also introduced new features.

Firework was founded last year by former executives of Snap, Linkedin and JPMorgan Chase. Earlier this year, Firework received approximately $ 30 million from venture capital firms such as IDG Capital, GSR Venture and Light speed Venture Partners China.

Small Companies being bought out:

It is always a good deal for large organisations to acquire smaller firms because of two main factors, 1 | Low Risk & 2) Exponential Growth.

Improved buying power, resources of a larger company, established sales processes, new customer relationships, additional management resources, etc. all tools designed to improve the financial position of the newly acquired business.So big companies buy small companies.

Public Sector vs Private Sector For IT Professional in EU

Public Sector vs Private Sector For IT Professional in EU

Mainly, it was my mother who pushed me into a job with a government agency , even though it's my dad who works in public service. Safe job, said my mother, totally relaxed work, good training opportunities, regular salaries and work just five kilometers from home. For the old place I had to drive for an hour. I made the mistake and listened to my mother.

I do not want to give my name, because that would only cause trouble. Maybe at home, possibly by the authority I was with, possibly with my current employer, because I could be considered as a nefarious person. Therefore, I remain anonymous, but I assure you that I exist and that everything is right, of which I report. *

Techie in training

Although I am a nerd, but in a positive sense of the term computer geek. Because I do not lack social contacts and I'm not a nerd who spends his life behind the computer. Information technology simply fascinates me. Already as a child I dismantled Windows computers and reassembled them. I supported friends' computers, of course remotely, because in the early 2000s it was the coolest way to remotely help with computer problems.

Later, I turned my hobby into a profession and completed my apprenticeship as a specialist for system integration after my technical college entrance qualification. That was in the beginning of 2017. I'm born in 1992. I did not start my apprenticeship until the age of 21, before that pretty much everything went through school forms, which is conceivable and feasible: from high school to vocational school, there the Hauptschul-, Realschulabschluss and finally the Fachhochschulreife specializing in technology.

My apprentice company was a small mechanical engineering company. Nearly 150 employees and owner-managed. That was really fun, especially for the company. The owners were older, but super-loyal and with heart and soul for their company and employees. I felt in good hands and professionally professionalized my knowledge of hobby. As an apprentice, I sometimes had to clean up the boxes of new computers, but mainly I was integrated into the corporate processes and used in the Support Level 1 and 2 already from the first year of apprenticeship.

To differentiate competencies, support is divided into three levels: first, second, and third-level support. The latter requires the highest expertise. In my apprenticeship we were six IT apprentices. Two were taken, four had to go, including me. What was not about me or the other three: The business situation was not good at the time.

The job prospects are not as rosy as everyone says

After that, I spent three months with an IT service provider in user support. A small company with eight men. I felt constantly watched and monitored, had to settle accounts with the customer every minute. The job was stressful, ungrateful and poorly paid. That's why I applied for job advertisements and quickly found a new job, but in the form of temporary employment. Some say temporary work or temporary work.

I was used by the Temporary Employment Agency for a customer's IT support in levels 1 and 2 again. This was a medium-sized production company with 1,400 employees. Five months later, the company took over me indefinitely.

In my experience, the job prospects for IT professionals are not as bright as they are everywhere, even in economically strong regions. Before you get a firm contract, you have to prove yourself, even if you have a completed vocational training with work experience. I was in the company for a year, then I followed my mother's advice.

Up on Papers, Dropped off in Everyday Life

I got the job in the office surprisingly fast. In the public service Germany are desperately looking for ITler. Private companies hunt candidates down with much better salaries. The office was a small, rural authority. Everyone was already in such offices, in which ID cards are extended, married or excerpts of land maps are created. My job was again the user support, for the first time from level 1 to 3, so in full. On the paper I had risen professionally. But in everyday life fell deeply.

Welcome to the Stone Age Support!

The internal organization in the agency was pure chaos. There was no ticket system for support, almost everything stored in Word and PDF files. Welcome to the Stone Age Support! After some time I got married and suggested to the team leader to introduce a ticket system. It was supposed to facilitate work distribution and support organization, especially because we were five in the IT team across five locations.

I also suggested setting up a centralized hotline to help our colleagues with IT issues. In addition, I advised to use a document management system to centralize knowledge in our operations and to break it down into processes. The first attempt at change failed because my team leader had a great deal of IT understanding but did not want to change his way of working and that of the team.

The man is over 50 and has been in public service for 25 years. He was always friendly and always available for problems or questions. But when it came to changes in work processes, he was fundamentally skeptical. The chaos had become a daily routine and without chaos he would probably have missed something fundamental.

A few weeks later a meeting of several dozen IT members of all kinds of authorities took place, organized by the higher authority. The proposed the introduction of a ticket system, but there were too many votes. That's why the topic was suspended.

I quit shortly thereafter, ending the nightmare public service after half a year. The job demotivated me, bored and made me doubt myself. Since then I have a certain aversion to job offers from the civil service.

Work like chewing gum


My authority has definitely worked less than in the private sector. If a colleague had problems with his computer, the solution was not really urgent. People are used to killing their time. I had nothing left to do on several days of the week afternoon because I'm not the type to do a lot of work over the long day so there's always something to do.

Out of boredom, I once disposed of the cardboard from a truckload of new PCs until a colleague has advised me that it is the caretaker's responsibility. Otherwise he has nothing more to do. In order not to have to kill time meaninglessly, I have partly trained privately during working hours or read professional articles. For this we were even asked by the supervisor. Maybe because it's less obvious then that you have nothing to do. So you at least staring at the screen. People who can not be put under pressure and who can work for a long time like chewing gum fit in with an authority.

Everything Takes Time

Less work - less money. You'd think that's fair. But it is not. In big and important authorities, which are mostly located in centers, the IT-people have to do a good job, which I have learned in cooperation with higher-level bodies. However, they earn as much as an IT person in a small office in the province. Authorities flat-rate everything. That's a big problem for the employees there.

Also the bureaucracy. Everything takes longer in office than in private companies. The fewest employees have service cell phones, in the offices there is no WLAN and almost no authority is active in the social networks, for example for personnel recruiting. But for young people like me, that's the second home. The staff council of the authority, I once suggested to seek new employees in social media. That was rejected immediately.

My current employer found me there. Since March of this year I have been working in the foundation of a well-known IT pioneer in Germany, also in extensive IT support. A foundation is the ideal mix of public service and business: there is no pressure to earn money, but enough money for IT. This combination ensures a relaxed work and interesting tasks, in this I have found the right professional balance for me. The proximity to home is not so important anymore: For this job and my girlfriend, I moved away 500 kilometers from home.

Beamforming 5G – Mobile Radio With Pinpoint Accuracy

Beamforming 5G – Mobile Radio With Pinpoint Accuracy

Time has come for mobile operators to use beamforming and achieve even better performance in mobile communications.

In beamfroming, an active antenna emits 64 signals in parallel, all of which are individually controlled and aligned to customers.

Beaming – that’s what some of us know. Legendary sentence from the science fiction series: “Beam me up, Scotty!”

But while it is still not possible to beam people or objects like the USS Enterprise, the word “beam” actually leads the way in terms of beamforming. Because these targeted mobile radio beams are one of the most important technologies of the future 5G network. This technique is very fascinating.

What is Beamforming?

Nobody can answer this question better than Sebastian Gunreben, the 5G Integration Manager at Deutsche Telekom. He explains: “Beamforming is the next step to MIMO .”
As a reminder: In 4×4 MIMO, a kind of Quattro drive for the mobile network, provide four transmit antennas on the mast and four receiving antennas in the terminal for about 60 percent faster surfing. From the previous maximum LTE speed of 300 megabits per second (Mbps) are so to the 480 Mbit/s.
Beamforming takes up this principle, but increases it again by a factor of 16! Because here an active antenna emits 64 signals in parallel, which can all be individually controlled and aligned to customers. “These are 64 reception and transmission elements to form 64 different beams.
Instead of broadcasting a mobile radio signal in a circle, which then becomes weaker and weaker in the edge area, the signals can be aligned in beamforming, i.e in the “shaping of beams”, in the form of elongated lobes. With this beam, the signal is then similar in the edge area of the cell as in the center.

However, the antennas do not move. “The beam is formed by a phase shift of the signal and multipath propagation – the antenna itself remains static.” The beams are fully automatic, so that the transmission power can be adjusted as needed and ensures optimal coverage for each user.

What is Beamforming?

In the new technology, no telecom employee sits under the antenna to direct the beams at the individual customers. Because that happens fully automatically. The transmission power is adjusted as needed and provides optimal coverage for each individual user.
Anyone who calls on the phone and only has a small amount of resources is also covered by the appropriate beam as a customer who is currently streaming a video with a high data rate. Result: Mobile communications, tailor-made as needed. And the horizontal and vertical orientation of the new active antennas also increases the coverage – especially in urban areas with tall buildings. Incidentally, beamforming is also used in WLAN.

How fast is 5G beamforming?

So far, the new technology is not running outside in “wild”, but in the lab. “There, of course, we have perfect conditions and get several gigabits per second,” reveals 5G specialists.
In reality, the Beams are making sure we get close to these lab values, and there will always be a point where we can achieve similar data rates become.” Deutsche Telekom’s customers can therefore look forward to real gigabit mobile communications.

What happens if there are more than 64 users in a cell?

Beamforming 5g

One of the most important principles of beamforming: “The 64 lobes or beams are not aimed at a single user, but ultimately form locally a club. That is, it can quite within a beam several customers are served – and depending on what you request for network resources. “

A good example is a tourist group standing in front of Eiffel Tower and taking selfies. Their members are all captured and cared for by the same beam. But who uploads his photos via 5G on Instagram, needs and receives a higher performance and data rate than the tourist colleague next door, who only calls home.

This is the crucial difference between a passive mobile phone antenna and the new beamforming.

“The antenna performance remains more or less the same when compared to a conventional antenna, but the previous antenna always transmits with the same power, 24 With beamforming, I can virtually call up this performance only when there really is a need in this cell. “

Is gigabit speed the main advantage of beamforming?

Speed is one thing. But the higher network coverage through the new technology even more important. Because: “With a static antenna, we have a certain propagation field, so if we are at the edge of the network, it may be that we can not get high data rates anymore or that the service per user does not work.”

The active antenna, on the other hand, “sees” when a user is at the edge of the network – and specifically directs a beam at him. “That’s why we suddenly no longer at the edge of the net, but within a beam.” This gives customers higher data rates, and the services work.

Beamforming Advantages and Disadvantages:

So here are benefits of beamforming:

  1. The main principle of this technology is the biggest advantage and that is boosting the power of beams in the desired direction to serve the farthest subscribers in a best way by reaching them to telecom cell towers or base stations. This increases supporting capacity of a cellular tower in terms of number of subscribers.
  2. The RF signal can overcome noisy and attenuating channel environment due to the increase of C/N ratio of the signal in 5G beamforming. This increases coverage capacity of the cell tower or base station.
  3. Owning to its immunity against fading and interference it is widely used with MIMO in latest wireless technologies viz. Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e), LTE, LTE-Advanced, 5G etc.

There are also shortcomings or disadvantages of Beamforming

  1. In this set up multiple RF antennas are used so making hardware complexity higher.
  2. The beamforming system is based on advanced high processing DSP chips so more power consumption is required.
  3. Because of above mentioned reason, cost of beamforming system gets higher compare to non-beamforming system.
2 Steps to Ensuring Project Success

2 Steps to Ensuring Project Success

A few weeks ago we were involved in a hackathon in which one of the participants struggled a lot to get things working.  We ended up spending almost a full week trying to help them, but without much success.  We got our own stuff up and running in a day.  Not because we had everything ready to go, but because we understood the technology, had experience using it, and were able to come up with a workable solution in a matter of hours.

Essentially their problem was that they had outsourced critical parts of their technology to a third party.  The people we interfaced with had extremely limited technological competency, which means that they didn’t even understand the basics of what was needed to make their solution work.

Hours were spent in meetings trying to explain rather basic technological realities and there was much frustration and very little progress.  Eventually there was finger-pointing and blame games.

To be frank:  it is pretty clear that when you turn up to a hackathon with people who have no idea what they are doing, you can only blame yourself when your internal vision does not get realized.  Being unprepared and lacking critical knowledge has a price. This is how outsourcing has caused problems in project management. This is one of the risks challenges faced in outsourcing.

What is worse for them:  the impression we were left with was that we should under no circumstances ever work with them again if we can avoid it.  They lacked competence, professionalism, and common courtesy.  While the experience may have triggered soul-searching post fact (we will never know), the impression they left us with was very negative.

we’ve been thinking about doing a writeup about this because this is how we sometimes come across to our cross-functional teams or our customers.  Overly slow and bureaucratic because we often can’t solve things directly but have to go through third parties.

Since this was a third party we thought it might be easier to distance ourselves a bit and see the patterns more clearly without triggering defensiveness.

Many systems in Technology firms are outsourced, which means we have no actual control over them.  When something goes wrong, or when changes are needed, the work that needs to be done sometimes spans multiple organizations.  We are not self-sufficient in many places where we really should be.

Essentially the cost of getting something done increases exponentially with the number of parties involved.  Which leads to slowness, and in many cases: that people give up even before trying.  We see this in ourselves:  if a problem requires us to deal with more than two different organizations, we know that the chances of success are really low and we are inclined to not even try.

What made me write this today is that I came across a formulation in the minutes from a meeting in which Technology firm is trying to collaborate with other organization and they simply can’t seem to do it.  The sentence that triggered me was this:

    “It seems that collaboration is challenging due to resource situation among project partners, and that availability of data is challenging due to outsourcing of operations and IT solutions.”

The sad bit is that this sentiment has occurred in some form in every single cross-departmental project where one part of firm wants to do something with another department of company that we have been involved with over the past couple of years.

We tend to harp on about solving the basics first.  we’ve done that for nearly a decade now.  There is a reason for that.

We talk a lot about big data and about machine learning and AI and whatnot.  While this is exciting and glamorous, it isn’t even possible unless you solve the basics.  Like how you provide access to data in a meaningful manner to other parts of the organization.  we’ve worked for organizations that failed to solve this.  we’ve also worked for organizations that succeeded.  Where these basic things were sorted out there was invariably a Cambrian explosion in products due to productivity gains.

I’m not laboring under the illusion that accomplishing this in huge firm is easy.  But I do know that we will cut ourselves off from many future opportunities if we just ignore it.  As we have mostly done for the past decade.

In order to know what constitutes “in a meaningful manner” you have to be somewhat technologically competent.  You actually have to understand what researchers, developers etc need to do in concrete terms.  You also need to develop a certain amount of empathy with the people who do things. We need to learn how can communication between departments be improved to avoid conflict.

Not 4,6 or 10 but only two factors that lead to successful projects and how to improve cross-office collaboration skills. These are only two ways to build collaborative teams:

  • The first is to actually listen to people who do stuff. When a problem is raised, don’t just reflexively become defensive and try to deny their perspective.  Don’t think that the way we do things today is the only possible way.  Be open to the possibility that we can, and perhaps should, change even very entrenched practices.  Believe in what customers/users say and try your best to understand what they are saying.  Put yourself in their place.  Don’t assume that you know why something creates friction for them.  Understand.
  • The second is learn how to do basic stuff. Learn how to write simple programs.  Learn how to write a program that consumes an API, for instance.  Try to do what your “customers” want you to do.  Put yourself in their shoes.  Figure out where the friction points are.   If you need to spend a few weeks learning how to do what your customers do:  do it.  If you are not willing to do this:  why should they trust you?  If you are a leader you should be able to do at least one or more of the jobs of the rank and file people who report to you.  If you can’t do any of their jobs: it is likely you are under-qualified. You don’t understand what your organization does.  Modern times places higher demands on leadership than just being able to hold a title.    Expand the scope of your competencies.  Always.

Let us know your thoughts on self-sufficiency, innovation and leadership in the comments.

How Operators Should Expedite 5G Deployment

How Operators Should Expedite 5G Deployment

Major challenge in 5G roll out is altogether new infrastructure buildup and increase in base stations at a fast pace.One way of quick 5G deployment is collaboration of mobile operators at that level where infra share can be done.

2nd quick fix of slow 5G readiness is changing acquisition process of infrastructure. For that respective Ministry of the country or authority can be approached.

Here is a 5G Rapid Deployment Case Study:

Germany’s Ministry of Transport developed new strategy for mobile communications.
Faster approval processes, public land as sites for mobile sites, cooperation between providers: The Federal Ministry of Transport under Andreas Scheuer, also responsible for digital and infrastructure, promoted mobile communications with an overall strategy.

Federal Infrastructure Minister Andreas Scheuer (CSU) promoted the expansion of mobile communications in poorly served rural areas with further measures. Part of a new overall strategy, regulations for faster approval and expansion processes were deployed, as the ministry announced. As sites for transmitters public plots were to be provided.

Co-operations of suppliers with regard to expansion and acceptance by local residents was strengthened. The package is currently being developed and went into the vote in the federal government.

The focus was on eliminating remaining white spots, the ministry said. The strategy was beyond the previous requirements and commitments of the providers. Specifically, it is planned, among other things, to improve the mobile network in trains. For this purpose, 50 million euros have been earmarked for funding since autumn. In border regions, network operators will be able to activate additional stations of the LTE standard or maximize existing ones in terms of performance.

Some 17,000 federal government properties, 5,000 land owned by security agencies and 120,000 parcels of water and shipping administration were identified as areas for broadcasting sites – some already in June 2019 . There network operators were to be offered shorter approval procedures than elsewhere and favorable rental conditions, it was said.

Despite all investments, there were still areas with poor mobile and Internet coverage, especially in rural areas. The recent awarding of the frequencies for the new 5G standard had further requirements enshrined to make some white spots disappear. This includes that by the end of 2022, at least 98 percent of households in Germany will need to be provided with at least 100 MBit per second in the download.

Vodafone took that opportunity and able to expedite its 5G test to achieve higher results than expectations.

Vodafone Shows High Data Rates in the First 5G Mobile Station

In a first test at Vodafone in Berlin, the city’s first public 5G network measured 840 megabits per second in download and almost 36 megabits in upload. The frequencies are not assigned yet.

Vodafone 5G speed

Vodafone has opened the new 5G network at a first location in Berlin-Adlershof. As the network operator on 15 August 2019 informed shares , two other Berlin 5G stations are to follow shortly. Vodafone has also activated its first stations in Frankfurt, Solingen, Duisburg and Bremen. All in all, 40 stations are now broadcasting in the only public 5G mobile phone network in Germany to date. Ten more will follow later this month.

The base station in Berlin should be from Huawei, as Golem.de has learned from informed circles. Ericsson equips North Rhine-Westphalia and the West. But the newly auctioned 5G spectrum is not yet assigned. “We are using existing frequencies in the 3.5 GHz band that we have already acquired in the past and by allocating the new frequencies we will be able to further optimize the performance in the 5G network,” said Vodafone spokesman Tobias Krzossa Golem .de on request.

For the first 5G network of Deutsche Telekom in Berlin customers have no access, here special SIM cards are needed, which may be issued only to Telekom employees.

The Huawei Mate 20 X 5G has been available to Vodafone customers since launching in July on the 5G network. Similarly, the Gigacube 5G first customer already serves as a replacement for slow landline connections. Soon, Vodafone customers will be able to surf the 5G network with a second smartphone. The Samsung Galaxy S10 5G receives the required software update and then also works in the 5G network. Vodafone claims to have “a few thousand users” in the 5G tariffs offered for nearly four weeks .

Speedtest is promising

The daily Welt has tested the net with a Huawei Mate 20 X 5G. In a parking lot that allows a clear view of the antenna at a distance of just under 300 meters, 840 megabits per second are measured in the download and almost 36 megabits in the upload. At a speed test in a McDonald’s restaurant in Adlershof, about 500 meters from the antenna, editor Thomas Heuzeroth came to 280 MBit / s, before the door of the tester reached 400 MBit / s. “You should not go more than 1,000 meters, because that’s not enough,” explained Heuzeroth.

In Berlin Adlershof, the world tester should have had almost the entire capacity of the radio cell in the shared medium to itself.

Business Internet Of Things | IoT Applications 2019

Business Internet Of Things | IoT Applications 2019

Bringing things to the Internet is not an easy job and a lot of resource utilization put pressure on the MOBILE TARIFFS FOR THE IOT.

Wirelessly via wireless , smart devices are the easiest way to the Internet of Things . Mobile network providers have offers for companies as well as for private customers.

iot applications 2019

Dog trackers, company cars, surveillance cameras in the garden or on the remote company premises: If machines of any size are to communicate with each other or with central computers, network access is required. Especially with mobile devices or if there is no Internet connection nearby, wireless solutions come into play via mobile radio.Also, air quality outdoor stations often use cellular access to send the measured data to the evaluation server.

Case Study of European Mobile Operators Offering IOT services

European Mobile network operators Telefonica, Vodafone and Deutsche Telekom offer pure data access for this purpose – including a special feature: While still on national roaming with the coming portable radio standard 5G is discussed, free network choice with mobile radio accesses for machines is already reality for years.

National Roaming For The IoT

All three network operators of Europe make national roaming possible with a little trick: they use SIM cards from their foreign companies. For example, Telefónica uses a SIM card called Vivo-o2-Movistar with Spanish ID for local roaming in native country and global roaming. The country name of the Vodafone SIMs was not communicated to us by the Group. However, in writing, “IoT applications can access other networks worldwide in the event that there is no Vodafone network available, allowing for a dedicated global SIM card that is licensed and used exclusively for the Internet of Things . “

Similarly, it works for Telekom in the business IoT rates. The cards are called GlobalSIM here and are labeled “with an international connoisseur.” In addition, there are dedicated roaming agreements for this card with the other mobile service providers in Germany, ” writes the press office.

The pure data rates for IoT use are available to both home and business users. In doing so, the providers orientate themselves to the application. For example, Deutsche Telekom sees trackers of all kinds as a field of application for its SIMs for private customers. Similar to Vodafone: The residential customer product V-Sim is usually also included in tracking systems for dogs, cats, children or cars. But also mobile surveillance cameras Vodafone as a purpose on. Only O2 / Telefónica offers its pure data plan for private customers without an explicit deployment scenario and leaves the use to the customer.

Private IoT: Tracking, Watching, Driving

From the nature of the use, some providers also seem to derive the prices – such as Vodafone in the V-Sim. This offers the network operator individually and as a package of hardware and SIM card. Depending on the application and hardware, the packages are called V-Kids Watch, V-Camera, V-Pet Tracker or V-Auto. The private customer pays in addition to a one-time price for the hardware a monthly service fee, which is depending on the package and service between just under three and six euros. The pure V-Sim without coupled hardware and services costs around five euros; In addition, just under seven euros will be due monthly. Vodafone promises that the monthly fee will cover all data traffic across the EU.

At Telefónica / O2, private customers can access the o2 Go free ticket . Although the prepaid data tariff is without a basic charge, the traffic must be booked to customers. This can happen on a daily basis: For almost three euros, there are 500 MB per day. Who chooses the ten-day option for just under 20 euros, saves a third and can consume ten times 500 MB. Monthly it starts with the Surf Pack S with 300 MB for just under three euros. The XL pack with 10 GB of traffic is just under 35 euros.

A dedicated tariff for any IoT applications Telekom does not. In addition to its pure data rates, it also offers other specialized offers. As Car ConnectThe Group markets an IoT tariff for vehicles. Using an adapter plug not only telematics data are transmitted to the cloud, the plug also serves as a hotspot for up to five connected devices such as smartphones or tablets. They must divide the contained data volume of 5 GB for new customers and 10 GB, if the tariff is added to an existing contract. The adapter regularly costs just under forty euros, but is currently offered for one euro. If you want to track something other than your car, you can choose the Smart Connect S. The tariff called tracking flat costs about five euros and includes unlimited data volume with a download bandwidth of only 64 kbit / s. In the upload, there are only 0.064 kBits / s.

The business users have a completely different picture: Here, all three network providers offer great freedom and want to make their offers according to the customer’s request.

example of iot 2019

Business IoT: Not So Easy

Telefónica Deutschland offers its customers a tariff model designed especially for IoT applications. IoT Connect is used to connect machines and devices and to facilitate easy access to the Internet of Things and M2M applications. The tariff consists of a modular service catalog with two basic rates and numerous bookable additional services. The basic tariffs differ according to priority use in Germany or in Europe.

In a kind of kit, customers can choose between short and long term, flexible data packages and other options. Particularly interesting: The booked data packets per SIM can be combined in a common pool. This way different traffic requirements can be compensated. At the end of the very clear IoT tariff construction kit , Telefónica displays both the total price and the price per SIM used. For the management of the booked SIMs, there is a special platform called Kite that allows customers to manage their devices and facilitate integration with IoT Cloud.

For specific offers and prices, Telekom and Vodafone are rather cautious, in contrast to Telefónica. Upon request, Vodafone describes its tracking system Vodafone IoT Tracker for vehicles from cars to trucks, construction machinery and other moving objects. Part of it is a surface where the customer can track his tracked objects. The platform can book business customers from just under four euros per month per tracked object, the scope and cost of networking depending on the needs and wishes of customers. For all other applications such as machine control, remote monitoring or automation, the company can contact the network operator directly.

The same is true of Telekom: It points to the complexity of IoT applications. This starts with the question of whether the planned application should be used internally or sold as a product. Further aspects for the tailor-made IoT tariff are billing modalities, device activation, distribution and more. When asked, the press office announces, “It’s just not done on data tariffs alone – as a telecoms company, we have a self-service platform that allows our customers to meet all these different needs.”

Deutsche Telekom refers to its supply structure , which allows different tariffs depending on the business model. Nevertheless, starting in June of this year, a prepaid system will be sold as a simply bookable standard offer. In addition, the Group offers complete packages for selected uses such as tracking of goods and machine monitoring.

Alternative: Multi-SIM and additional cards

For both private and business users, a look at the terms and conditions of their mobile and fixed-line contracts can pay off. Because with so many additional SIM cards can be booked, which use the inclusive services of the contract with the same number as the main card. So you can bring his tablet or his smartwatch as well as IoT devices. The available data volume of the contract is mostly used by all cards together. But beware: The conditions for multi-SIMs differ depending on the mobile operators in part between the different contracts very strong.

Another way to bring trackers and other things online are additional SIM cards, as some fixed line providers offer them to their terminals. For example, at 1 & 1 some of its DSL connections have up to four free SIM cards throttled to 7.2 Mbps bandwidth and up to 100 MB of data per month. Only an activation fee applies to these cards. The term is linked to that of the main contract.

Oldschool: IoT control and feedback via SMS

New in all sorts of electronics, SIM cards are admittedly not. For a long time, for example, car heater can be controlled by remote control, which usually happened via SMS. The demand for such old technology is no longer strong according to Telekom, which is why SMS is no longer provided for IoT applications. Nevertheless, according to the press office, SIM cards from the company are multimode-capable and, in addition to the NB-IoT radio standard, they can always use 2G / 3G, which would still allow SMS.

Telefónica continues to see SMS as sometimes necessary – even for IoT applications. Accordingly, all Group IoT systems support the receipt of SMS: The Global Sim Vivo-o2-Movistar allows reception and transmission. Unlike Vodafone: Both the V-Sim for residential customers and Vodafone IoT Tracker for enterprise customers are pure IP-based data systems in which circuit-switched services such as sending / receiving SMS messages are not provided.

A look at IoT tariffs for both private and business customers shows that the Internet of Things is already a reality. With the expansion of 5G network operators expect a strong increase in networked devices. Telekom, for example, speaks of mass IoT and points out that today’s networks are technologically and economically insufficiently prepared for the onrush of machines. That’s why the company and its competitors are working hard to prepare the future networks and the services they need.

These 3 mobile operators deployed IOT Network Models are case studies of industrial level deployment of internet of things.

Everything on internet demands iot business ideas, iot business plan to avail opportunities.

Why AMD Makes Less Sales and Profits in Q2 FY 2019

Why AMD Makes Less Sales and Profits in Q2 FY 2019

In the second quarter of 2019, the numbers for Advanced Micro Devices AMD went down a bit, primarily due to less sold graphics cards after the downturn in the mining hype. Over the next few months, however, the Ryzen 3000, the Radeon RX 5000 and the Epyc 7002 will ensure higher sales.

AMD gaming cpu

AMD has announced its second quarter 2019 results, down from $ 1.756 billion in the prior year to $ 1.531 billion, from $ 116 million to $ 35 million. On the other hand, margins increased slightly and the average selling price per processor was also higher than in the previous year, because the Ryzen 3000 for desktops and the Epyc 7002 for servers are more expensive than the predecessor models, which are now cheaply available.

The Computing and Graphics division, which includes CPUs and graphics cards, turned over just $ 940 million instead of $ 1.086 billion, with earnings down from $ 117 million to $ 22 million. According to AMD, this is primarily due to less sold graphics cards after the downturn in the crypto-mining boom, the new Radeon RX 5700 (XT) and the equally new Ryzen 3000 have little effect despite good sales on the numbers so far.

AMD gaming products

Although the drop in sales for Playstation and Xbox is noticeable in the segment for server CPUs and console chips called Enterprise, Embedded and Semi-Custom, the Epyc 7002 is already showing itself: sales went from $ 670 million to $ 591 million but the profit rose slightly from $ 69 million to $ 89 million.

According to AMD leading semiconductor company, the partners would very well accept the new server CPUs : Compared to the Epyc 7000, the first generation, more than twice the number of platforms in development and the number of customers in the cloud and enterprise sector is four times as high as before. The Epyc 7002, with up to 64 cores instead of 32 cores, called Rome internally, will be officially launched on August 7, 2019. For the third quarter of 2019, AMD expects sales of $ 1.8 billion, 9 percent more than last year.

AMD

However AMD X570 motherboards with PCIe 4.0 is the latest innovative that will give gamers more flexibility and more control than ever and hence boost to the AMD sale.

The End of the iPhone? Apple is Planning the Next Big Thing

The End of the iPhone? Apple is Planning the Next Big Thing

For years, analysts and investors puzzled what Apple would probably be the “next big thing” after the iPhone. Now it seems clear: It is not a product, but the combination of online services and the equipment offering to the groups. Why Apple have to rethink, explains our expert in the post.


Apple has digested the declines in the iPhone business and is growing again thanks to online services and devices such as the Apple Watch computer watch and the AirPods earphones. IPhone revenues fell 12 percent year-over-year to just under $ 26 billion in the quarter (€ 23.3 billion). However, Apple managed to increase its sales by one percent to 53.8 billion dollars.
This leaves the iPhone still the most important Apple product. But its share of the entire business of the group fell to 48 percent. This is the lowest value in many years – otherwise it was often more than 60 percent.
A key to overcoming the iPhone dependency lies in online services. These include the streaming service Apple Music, the payment service Apple Pay and iCloud storage on Apple’s servers. The division’s sales grew within a year from 10.2 to almost 11.5 billion dollars. Apple now has 420 million subscribers. Coming soon are other offers such as the game subscription Apple Arcade and the video streaming service Apple TV + . In the US, an Apple credit card will be launched in August .

Apple is looking for new sources of revenue

An exciting question is how the shift in revenue sources can permanently change Apple’s business policy. The company has traditionally made its money selling equipment, which clearly separates it from tech rivals such as Facebook and Google, which are financed by advertising and rely on user data. At Apple, online offers originally served as a supplement to make their own devices more attractive. But now they are an independent economic factor of increasing importance. It’s financially lucrative for Apple, for example, when people spend a lot of money on gaming apps or need more online storage space.
However, the largest jump in sales was in the quarter, but in the division, which is the business of the Apple Watch, the AirPods, the networked HomePod speakers and accessories is summarized. There, revenues rose from $ 3.7 to 5.5 billion. Apple does not name sales figures for its devices, but the Watch was talked about by “millions” of new users – in the past quarter, three-quarters of the watches sold went to first-time buyers. For Mac computers, revenues increased from $ 5.3 billion to $ 5.8 billion, and the iPad jumped from $ 4.6 billion to well over $ 5 billion.

apple next big thing

Excluding the iPhone, the remaining business of the group grew by 17 percent, as Apple recalculated. Meanwhile, iPhone sales have been declining for several quarters after weaker sales in China and a slowdown in the smartphone market overall. Recently, the iPhone business but went better again, said CEO Tim Cook before analysts.
All in all, Apple earned well over $ 10 billion in the third fiscal quarter ended June, down 13 percent year-on-year. The group closed the quarter with $ 211 billion in reserves – despite $ 21 billion in shareholder sales in the quarter alone, mainly through share buybacks.

Apple for the current quarter, Apple sales of between 61 and 64 billion dollars in prospect. In the same quarter last year, it had been $ 62.9 billion. Also in the face of this forecast, which exceeded analysts’ expectations, the stock temporarily gained more than four percent in the after hours on Tuesday.

Cook said in the conference call that Apple also wanted to assemble the new generation of the professional Mac Pro computer in the US. That’s why the company has requested that Chinese device components be exempted from 25% US punitive duties. US President Donald Trump had said last week that the company will not get relief from the punitive tariffs on Chinese components. “Build it in the US, no tolls,” Trump wrote on Twitter. Cook said that Apple is currently declaring its position and hopes that the application for exemption will be approved.

Apple mounts the previous Mac Pro model since 2013 in Texas. Following the launch of the new generation in June, the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times had written that final production should be relocated to China. Cook said that most Apple products are produced “virtually anywhere”, with contributions from, for example, the US, Europe, South Korea, Japan and China. “It’s the nature of a global supply chain.”